José González-Alonso




PhD in Exercise Physiology (1994): Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, USA.

Thesis: Dehydration and cardiovascular hemodynamics during exercise: Influence of environmental temperature, body position and body core temperature.

MA in Exercise Physiology (1991): Department of Kinesiology and Health Education University of Texas at Austin, USA.

Thesis:  Rehydration following exercise: Comparison of various solutions.

Licenciado en Educación Física (1987): Instituto Nacional de Educación Física de Cataluña, University of Barcelona, Spain.

Previous positions

1999-2005: Senior Research Fellow: The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, National University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
1994-1998: Post-doctoral Fellow, Human Physiology Department; August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
1988-1994: Research Fellow, Human, Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education. University of Texas at Austin, USA.


2003: Fellowship from the Copenhagen Hospital System
1998: Post-doctoral fellowship from Team Denmark.
1996-1998: Marie Curie post-doctoral fellowship, European Commission.
1996: Post-doctoral fellowship from Team Danmark.
1995: Post-doctoral fellowship from The Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark
1993-1994: Fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science: Doctors and technologists.
1988-1992: Fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science: Graduate studies.
1982-1987: Scholarship from the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain: Undergraduate studies.

Research area(s)

The research of José González-Alonso revolves around two areas of human integrative physiology that have important implications for both athletic performance and exercise tolerance in health and disease. The first deals with cardiovascular responses to exercise using interventions such as heat stress, dehydration and large versus small muscle mass exercise to investigate how the human body copes with conditions that tax the cardiovascular system to its regulatory capacity. A second related area centres on the role of the erythrocytes and plasma adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on the control of the human circulation for which he uses a great variety of interventions in healthy and diseased individuals (i.e., hypoxia, anaemia, polycythaemia, hyperoxia, CO inhalation, intravascular nucleotide infusion, heat stress, dehydration, small versus large muscle mass exercise). His work has been published in high impact journals such as Journal of Physiology, Circulation, Circulation Research, American Journal of Physiology and Journal of Applied Physiology. A full list of publications is included below.




José contributes to the teaching of the following physiology modules at undergraduate and graduate level:

  • Foundations for Sport and Exercise Physiology
  • Applied Sport and Exercise Physiology
  • Exercise in Special Populations
  • Physiology of the High Performance Athlete
  • Applied Sports Physiology

Selected Publications

Journal articles

Pomella, N. , Wilhelm, EN. , Kolyva, C. , Gonzales-Alonso, J. , et al.   (Accepted)   'Common carotid artery diameter, blood flow velocity and wave intensity responses at rest and during exercise in young healthy humans – A reproducibility study'. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 43 pp. 943 - 957. Download publication 

Trangmar, SJ. , Chiesa, ST. , Kalsi, KK. , Secher, NH.  and González-Alonso, J.   (Accepted)   'Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans'. Physiol RepDownload publication 

Kalsi, KK. , Chiesa, ST. , Trangmar, SJ. , Ali, L. , et al.   (2016)   'Mechanisms for the control of local tissue blood flow during thermal interventions: influence of temperature-dependent ATP release from human blood and endothelial cells'. Exp Physiol, 102 (2).  pp. 228 - 244. doi: 10.1113/EP085910 Download publication 

Wilhelm, EN. , González-Alonso, J. , Parris, C.  and Rakobowchuk, M.   (2016)   'Exercise intensity modulates the appearance of circulating microvesicles with pro-angiogenic potential upon endothelial cells.'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 311 (5).  pp. H1297 - H1310. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00516.2016 Download publication 

Chiesa, ST. , Trangmar, SJ.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2016)   'Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress'. Journal of Applied Physiology. pp. jap.00965.2015 - jap.00965.2015. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00965.2015 Download publication 

Boushel, R. , Gnaiger, E. , Larsen, FJ. , Helge, JW. , et al.   (2015)   'Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity'. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS, 25 pp. 135 - 143. doi: 10.1111/sms.12613 

Trangmar, SJ. , Chiesa, ST. , Llodio, I. , Garcia, B. , et al.   (2015)   'Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 309 pp. H1598 - H1607. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00525.2015 Download publication 

González-Alonso, J. , Calbet, JA. , Boushel, R. , Helge, JW. , et al.   (2015)   'Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.'. Exp Physiol, 100 (10).  pp. 1118 - 1131. doi: 10.1113/EP085383 Download publication 

González-Alonso, J.  and Kalsi, KK.   (2015)   'The ubiquitous ATP molecule: Could it be the elusive thermal mediator igniting skin perfusion and sweating in the heat-stressed human?'. J Physiol, 593 (11).  pp. 2399 - 2399. doi: 10.1113/JP270558 Download publication 

Nybo, L.  and Gonzalez-Alonso, J.   (2015)   'Critical core temperature: a hypothesis too simplistic to explain hyperthermia-induced fatigue'. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS, 25 pp. 4 - 5. doi: 10.1111/sms.12444 

Racinais, S. , Alonso, JM. , Coutts, AJ. , Flouris, AD. , et al.   (2015)   'Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat'. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS, 25 pp. 6 - 19. doi: 10.1111/sms.12467 

Chiesa, ST. , Trangmar, SJ. , Kalsi, K. , Rakobowchuk, M. , et al.   (2015)   'Local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators of limb tissue hyperemia in the heat-stressed human at rest and during small muscle mass exercise.'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 309 pp. H369 - H380. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00078.2015 Download publication 

Trangmar, SJ. , Chiesa, ST. , Stock, CG. , Kalsi, KK. , et al.   (2014)   'Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans'. J Physiol, 592 (14).  pp. 3143 - 3160. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2014.272104 Download publication 

Munch, GDW. , Svendsen, JH. , Damsgaard, R. , Secher, NH. , et al.   (2014)   'Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: Insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise'. Journal of Physiology, 592 (2).  pp. 377 - 390. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.262246 

Stoehr, EJ. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Bezodis, IN.  and Shave, R.   (2014)   'Left ventricular energetics: new insight into the plasticity of regional contributions at rest and during exercise'. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, 306 (2).  pp. H225 - H232. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00938.2012 

Pearson, J. , Kalsi, KK. , Stöhr, EJ. , Low, DA. , et al.   (2013)   'Haemodynamic responses to dehydration in the resting and exercising human leg.'. Eur J Appl Physiol, 113 pp. 1499 - 1509. doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2579-2 

Bergeron, MF. , Bahr, R. , Baertsch, P. , Bourdon, L. , et al.   (2012)   'International Olympic Committee consensus statement on thermoregulatory and altitude challenges for high-level athletes'. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 46 (11).  pp. 770 - 779. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091296 

González-Alonso, J.   (2012)   'ATP as a mediator of erythrocyte-dependent regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery in humans.'. J Physiol, 590 (20).  pp. 5001 - 5013. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.235002 

Goodall, S. , González-Alonso, J. , Ali, L. , Ross, EZ.  and Romer, LM.   (2012)   'Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans'. J Physiol, 590 (11).  pp. 2767 - 2782. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.228890 Download publication 

Jeppesen, TD. , Vissing, J.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2012)   'Influence of erythrocyte oxygenation and intravascular ATP on resting and exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans with mitochondrial myopathy'. Mitochondrion, 12 (3).  pp. 414 - 422. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2011.11.003 

Kalsi, KK.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2012)   'Temperature-dependent release of ATP from human erythrocytes: Mechanism for the control of local tissue perfusion'. Exp Physiol, 97 (3).  pp. 419 - 432. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2011.064238 Download publication 

González-Alonso, J.   (2012)   'Human thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system'. Experimental Physiology, 97 (3).  pp. 340 - 346. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058701 

Stöhr, EJ. , González-Alonso, J. , Pearson, J. , Low, DA. , et al.   (2011)   'Dehydration reduces left ventricular filling at rest and during exercise independent of twist mechanics'. J Appl Physiol, 111 (3).  pp. 891 - 897. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00528.2011 

Stoehr, EJ. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J.  and Shave, R.   (2011)   'Left ventricular mechanical limitations to stroke volume in healthy humans during incremental exercise'. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, 301 (2).  pp. H478 - H487. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00314.2011 

Pearson, J. , Low, DA. , Stöhr, E. , Kalsi, K. , et al.   (2011)   'Hemodynamic responses to heat stress in the resting and exercising human leg: insight into the effect of temperature on skeletal muscle blood flow'. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 300 (3).  pp. R663 - R673. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00662.2010 Download publication 

Boushel, R. , Gnaiger, E. , Calbet, JAL. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , et al.   (2011)   'Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans'. Mitochondrion, 11 (2).  pp. 303 - 307. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2010.12.006 

Stöhr, EJ. , González-Alonso, J. , Pearson, J. , Low, DA. , et al.   (2011)   'Effects of graded heat stress on global left ventricular function and twist mechanics at rest and during exercise in healthy humans'. Exp Physiol, 96 (2).  pp. 114 - 124. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2010.055137 

Dufour, SP. , Patel, RP. , Brandon, A. , Teng, X. , et al.   (2010)   'Erythrocyte-dependent regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow: role of varied oxyhemoglobin and exercise on nitrite, S-nitrosohemoglobin, and ATP.'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 299 (6).  pp. H1936 - H1946. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00389.2010 

Crandall, CG.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2010)   'Cardiovascular function in the heat-stressed human'. Acta Physiologica, 199 (4).  pp. 407 - 423. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02119.x 

Mortensen, SP. , González-Alonso, J. , Bune, LT. , Saltin, B. , et al.   (2009)   'ATP-induced vasodilation and purinergic receptors in the human leg: roles of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and adenosine'. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 296 (4).  pp. R1140 - R1148. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.90822.2008 

Mortensen, SP. , González-Alonso, J. , Nielsen, JJ. , Saltin, B.  and Hellsten, Y.   (2009)   'Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion'. J Appl Physiol, 107 pp. 1757 - 1762. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00638.2009 

González-Alonso, J. , Mortensen, SP. , Jeppesen, TD. , Ali, L. , et al.   (2008)   'Haemodynamic responses to exercise, ATP infusion and thigh compression in humans: insight into the role of muscle mechanisms on cardiovascular function'. J Physiol, 586 (9).  pp. 2405 - 2417. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.152058 Download publication 

Mortensen, SP. , Damsgaard, R. , Dawson, EA. , Secher, NH.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2008)   'Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans'. J Physiol, 586 (10).  pp. 2621 - 2635. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.149401 Download publication 

González-Alonso, J.   (2008)   'ATP: a double-edged signalling molecule regulating the flow of oxygen'. Journal of Physiology, 586 (17).  pp. 4033 - 4034. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.160358 

Rosenmeier, JB. , Yegutkin, GG.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2008)   'Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle'. J Physiol, 586 (20).  pp. 4993 - 5002. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.155432 Download publication 

Calbet, JAL. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Helge, JW. , Sondergaard, H. , et al.   (2007)   'Cardiac output and leg and arm blood flow during incremental exercise to exhaustion on the cycle ergometer'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 103 (3).  pp. 969 - 978. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01281.2006 

González-Alonso, J. , Crandall, CG.  and Johnson, JM.   (2007)   'The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat'. Journal of Physiology, 586 (1).  pp. 45 - 53. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158 

Mortensen, SP. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Damsgaard, R. , Saltin, B.  and Hellsten, Y.   (2007)   'Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 581 (2).  pp. 853 - 861. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.127423 

Yegutkin, GG. , Samburski, SS. , Mortensen, SP. , Jalkanen, S.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2007)   'Intravascular ADP and soluble nucleotidases contribute to acute prothrombotic state during vigorous exercise in humans'. J Physiol, 579 (2).  pp. 553 - 564. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119453 Download publication 

Juel, C. , Olsen, S. , Rentsch, RL. , González-Alonso, J.  and Rosenmeier, JB.   (2007)   'K+ as a vasodilator in resting human muscle: Implications for exercise hyperaemia'. Acta Physiologica, 190 (4).  pp. 311 - 318. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2007.01678.x 

Gonzalez-Alonso, J.   (2007)   'Hyperthermia impairs brain, heart and muscle function in exercising humans'. SPORTS MEDICINE, 37 (4-5).  pp. 371 - 373. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200737040-00025 

González-Alonso, J. , Mortensen, SP. , Dawson, EA. , Secher, NH.  and Damsgaard, R.   (2006)   'Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin.'. J Physiol, 572 (1).  pp. 295 - 305. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.101121 

Mortensen, SP. , Dawson, EA. , Yoshiga, CC. , Dalsgaard, MK. , et al.   (2005)   'Limitations to systemic and locomotor limb muscle oxygen delivery and uptake during maximal exercise in humans'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 566 (1).  pp. 273 - 285. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.086025 

Marcuello, A. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Calbet, JAL. , Damsgaard, R. , et al.   (2005)   'Skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA content in exercising humans'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 99 (4).  pp. 1372 - 1377. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00289.2005 

Dawson, EA. , Secher, NH. , Dalsgaard, MK. , Ogoh, S. , et al.   (2004)   'Standing up to the challenge of standing: A siphon does not support cerebral blood flow in humans'. AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 287 (4).  pp. R911 - R914. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00196.2004 

González-Alonso, J. , Dalsgaard, MK. , Osada, T.  and Volianitis, S.   (2004)   'Brain and central haemodynamics and oxygenation during maximal exercise in humans'. J Physiol, 557 (1).  pp. 331 - 342. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.060574 

Mourtzakis, M. , Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Graham, TE.  and Saltin, B.   (2004)   'Hemodynamics and O-2 uptake during maximal knee extensor exercise in untrained and trained human quadriceps muscle: effects of hyperoxia'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 97 (5).  pp. 1796 - 1802. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00169.2004 

Rosenmeier, JB. , Hansen, J.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2004)   'Circulating ATP-induced vasodilatation overrides sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in human skeletal muscle'. J Physiol, 558 (1).  pp. 351 - 365. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.063107 

González-Alonso, J.  and Calbet, JAL.   (2003)   'Reductions in systemic and skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery limit maximal aerobic capacity in humans'. Circulation, 107 (6).  pp. 824 - 830. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000049746.29175.3F 

Hanada, A. , Sander, M.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2003)   'Human skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate and limb haemodynamics with reduced blood oxygenation and exercise.'. Journal of Physiology, 551 (2).  pp. 635 - 647. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.044024 

Richardson, RS. , Noyszewski, EA. , Saltin, B.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2002)   'Effect of mild carboxy-hemoglobin on exercising skeletal muscle: intravascular and intracellular evidence'. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 283 (5).  pp. R1131 - R1139. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00226.2002 

González-Alonso, J. , Olsen, DB.  and Saltin, B.   (2002)   'Erythrocyte and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery - Role of circulating ATP'. Circ Res, 91 (11).  pp. 1046 - 1055. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000044939.73286.E2 

Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Richardson, RS.  and Saltin, B.   (2001)   'Exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans responds to reduction in arterial oxyhaemoglobin, but not to altered free oxygen'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 530 (2).  pp. 331 - 341. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0331l.x 

Bangsbo, J. , Krustrup, P. , González-Alonso, J.  and Saltin, B.   (2001)   'ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: Effect of previous exercise'. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 280 (6).  pp. E956 - E964. 

Nielsen, B. , Hyldig, T. , Bidstrup, F. , González-Alonso, J.  and Christoffersen, GR.   (2001)   'Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat'. Pflugers Arch, 442 (1).  pp. 41 - 48. doi: 10.1007/s004240100515 Download publication 

Coyle, EF.  and González-Alonso, J.   (2001)   'Cardiovascular drift during prolonged exercise: new perspectives'. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 29 (2).  pp. 88 - 92. 

Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Quistorff, B. , Krustrup, P. , Bangsbo, J.  and Saltin, B.   (2000)   'Heat production in human skeletal muscle at the onset of intense dynamic exercise'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 524 (2).  pp. 603 - 615. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.00603.x 

Bangsbo, J. , Krustrup, P. , González-Alonso, J. , Boushel, R.  and Saltin, B.   (2000)   'Muscle oxygen kinetics at onset of intense dynamic exercise in humans'. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279 (3).  pp. R899 - R906. 

González-Alonso, J. , Mora-Rodríguez, R.  and Coyle, EF.   (2000)   'Stroke volume during exercise: Interaction of environment and hydration'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 278 (2).  pp. H321 - H330. 

Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Calbet, JAL.  and Nielsen, B.   (1999)   'Metabolic and thermodynamic responses to dehydration-induced reductions in muscle blood flow in exercising humans'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 520 (2).  pp. 577 - 589. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00577.x 

González-Alonso, J. , Mora-Rodríguez, R.  and Coyle, EF.   (1999)   'Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia'. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 277 (2).  pp. H576 - H583. 

González-Alonso, J. , Teller, C. , Andersen, SL. , Jensen, FB. , et al.   (1999)   'Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat'. J Appl Physiol, 86 (3).  pp. 1032 - 1039. 

Gonzalez-Alonso, J. , Calbet, JAL.  and Nielsen, B.   (1998)   'Muscle blood flow is reduced with dehydration during prolonged exercise in humans'. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 513 (3).  pp. 895 - 905. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.895ba.x 

González-Alonso, J. , Mora-Rodríguez, R. , Below, PR.  and Coyle, EF.   (1997)   'Dehydration markedly impairs cardiovascular function in hyperthermic endurance athletes during exercise'. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82 (4).  pp. 1229 - 1236. 

González-Alonso, J. , Mora-Rodríguez, R. , Below, PR.  and Coyle, EF.   (1995)   'Dehydration reduces cardiac output and increases systemic and cutaneous vascular resistance during exercise'. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79 (5).  pp. 1487 - 1496. 

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