Nigel Saunders



Theme Leader for Synthetic Biology / Interdisciplinary Chair of Systems Biology

Room: Heinz Wolff Building 015


Tel: +44 (0)1895 265734

Nigel believes that research should be both useful and interesting. He has co-authored over 100 academic papers and book chapters, largely relating to medical microbiology and research that exploits genome information and addresses how living systems work ‘as a whole system’ (in bacteria, plants, structural biology, cancer biology, biomarkers, and more). His work is highly cited (ISI h-index 23) and he is always interested to discuss ways in which genomics and systems biology can be exploited to gain deeper insights into how living systems work, especially the key determinants of how they behave. This is frequently, but far from exclusively, focussed on the factors / differences that make bacteria dangerous (or not). He is always open to and encourages interested students, potential post-doctoral fellows, or collaborators to contact him and explore working with us at any time – or just to discuss an interesting idea.

Nigel trained in medicine in Aberdeen, including an additional MRC-supported year pursuing studying research and pathology (the mechanisms of disease), including electives and two SHHD-funded summer research studentships pursuing laboratory research. He did his junior house officer posts in the professorial medical and surgical wards in Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, working with clinical trials patients where possible, before starting specialist training in microbiology / pathology in Birmingham with Douglas Burden at Birmingham General Hospital. He did his main specialist training in microbiology and infection in the Infectious Disease Department at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School / Hammersmith Hospital in London (now part of Imperial College), under the directorship of Jon Cohen and Tom Rogers. During this time Nigel pursued research in Jon Cohen’s sepsis group, and more independently in the area of antibiotic therapy and drug monitoring. After completing the clinical requirements for training Nigel moved to an exclusively research-based / laboratory career, but this clinical and translatable background remains an important consideration in his work.

In 1995 Nigel was awarded a Wellcome Trust Research Fellowship in Medical Microbiology, and he moved to train in molecular biology, bacterial pathogenesis, and genomics in Richard Moxon’s Molecular Infectious Disease Group, in the Institute for Molecular Medicine, Oxford University. During this time he was fortunate to be trained and supported by a strong team and to be part of international collaborations at the forefront of bacterial genome sequencing, analysis, and exploitation. After this, in 2000, he was awarded a Wellcome Trust Advanced Research Fellowship, which supported a move to establish the Bacterial Pathogenesis and Functional Genomics Group, at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford University, and after this Fellowship he was taken over to an on-going post as a Reader and group leader in the Department. During this time work focussed on genomics, regulation, and the underlying evolution and determinants of bacterial virulence, but also included a wide range of collaborative projects exploiting functional genomics ranging from regulation in plants, mouse and human immunology, cancer biology, and biomarker discovery.

During his time in Oxford, Nigel also re-designed an taught the pre-clinical medical bacteriology course in the medical school, and held positions in several Oxford Colleges including a Lectureships at Magdalen College and Somerville College, a 5-year Fellowship at University College, and a Senior Research Fellowship at Somerville College (where he continues to hold an Honorary Senior Research Fellowship, now he has re-located to Brunel University London).

In 2011 Nigel moved to Brunel University London to take up the Interdisciplinary Chair of Systems Biology, and co-directorship of the Centre for Systems and Synthetic Biology. This is an opportunity to continue and develop existing strong areas of research, and to develop others in the area of functional genomics, systems biology, and synthetic biology, which more appropriately encompass the way in which his research and interests have developed over the last 10+ years. Equally important, it involves a move to a University with a Systems Biology Centre which has a clear goal to integrate, develop, and exploit the biological sciences and computational science / maths interface, and to combine people from both backgrounds into a single research-focussed grouping, which is so vital to this area of research in the future. This integration is reflected by the fact that Nigel is a member of both Biosciences in the School of Health Sciences and Social Care, and also the School of Information Systems, Computing, and Mathematics.

For more information on Nigel’s research, please refer to the web pages for the Centre for Systems and Synthetic Biology.


2001: Academic entry on the GMC / STA Specialist Register in Pathology / Bacteriology

2000: PhD (Medical Microbiology & Microbial Pathogenesis) Open University / Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford.

1995: DipRCPath

1994: MSc (Clinical Microbiology) University of London

1990: MB ChB (UK Medical Degree, equivalent of US MD) University of Aberdeen

1986: BMedBiol (Pathology) Hons/1st University of Aberdeen


Selected Publications

Journal articles

Foster, HA. , Davies, J. , Pink, RC. , Turkcigdem, S. , et al.   (2014)   'The human myometrium differentially expresses mTOR signalling components before and during pregnancy: Evidence for regulation by progesterone'. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 139 pp. 166 - 172. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.02.017 Download publication 

Etchells, JP. , Moore, L. , Jiang, WZ. , Prescott, H. , et al.   (2012)   'A role for BELLRINGER in cell wall development is supported by loss-of-function phenotypes'. BMC Plant Biology, 12 doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-212 Download publication 

Moffat, CS. , Ingle, RA. , Wathugala, DL. , Saunders, NJ. , et al.   (2012)   'ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against botrytis cinerea in arabidopsis'. PLoS One, 7 (4).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035995 Download publication 

Sainsbury, S. , Ren, J. , Saunders, NJ. , Stuart, DI.  and Owens, RJ.   (2012)   'Structure of the regulatory domain of the LysR family regulator NMB2055 (MetR-like protein) from Neisseria meningitidis'. Acta Crystallographica Section F, 68 (7).  pp. 730 - 737. doi: 10.1107/S1744309112010603 Download publication 

Benner, MF. , Ballabio, E. , van Kester, MS. , Saunders, NJ. , et al.   (2012)   'Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma shows a distinct miRNA expression profile and reveals differences from tumor-stage mycosis fungoides'. Experimental Dermatology, 21 (8).  pp. 632 - 634. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01548.x Download publication 

Whalley, HJ. , Sargeant, AW. , Steele, JF. , Lacoere, T. , et al.   (2011)   'Transcriptomic analysis reveals calcium regulation of specific promoter motifs in Arabidopsis'. Plant Cell, 23 (11).  pp. 4079 - 4095. doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.090480 

Saunders, NJ. , Trivedi, UH. , Thomson, ML. , Doig, C. , et al.   (2011)   'Deep resequencing of serial sputum isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during therapeutic failure due to poor compliance reveals stepwise mutation of key resistance genes on an otherwise stable genetic background'. Journal of Infection, 62 (3).  pp. 212 - 217. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2011.01.003 

Chi, JX. , Ballabio, E. , Chen, XH. , Kusec, R. , et al.   (2011)   'MicroRNA expression in multiple myeloma is associated with genetic subtype, isotype and survival'. Biology Direct, 6 doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-6-23 Download publication 

van Kester, MS. , Ballabio, E. , Benner, MF. , Chen, XH. , et al.   (2011)   'miRNA expression profiling of mycosis fungoides'. Molecular Oncology, 5 (3).  pp. 273 - 280. doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2011.02.003 

Porter, SL. , Wilkinson, DA. , Byles, ED. , Wadhams, GH. , et al.   (2011)   'Genome sequence of Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain WS8N'. Journal of Bacteriology, 193 (15).  pp. 4027 - 4028. doi: 10.1128/JB.05257-11 Download publication 

Ren, J. , Sainsbury, S. , Nettleship, JE. , Saunders, NJ.  and Owens, RJ.   (2010)   'The crystal structure of NGO0477 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveals a novel protein fold incorporating a helix-turn-helix motif'. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 78 (7).  pp. 1798 - 1802. doi: 10.1002/prot.22698 

Sainsbury, S. , Ren, J. , Nettleship, JE. , Saunders, NJ. , et al.   (2010)   'The structure of a reduced form of OxyR from Neisseria meningitidis'. BMC Structural Biology, 10 doi: 10.1186/1472-6807-10-10 Download publication 

Malhas, A. , Saunders, NJ.  and Vaux, DJ.   (2010)   'The nuclear envelope can control gene expression and cell cycle progression via miRNA regulation'. Cell Cycle, 9 (3).  pp. 531 - 539. doi: 10.4161/cc.9.3.10511 Download publication 

Farquhar, CA. , Paterson, AM. , Cobbold, SP. , Rueda, HG. , et al.   (2010)   'Tolerogenicity is not an absolute property of a dendritic cell'. European Journal of Immunology, 40 (6).  pp. 1728 - 1737. doi: 10.1002/eji.200939974 

Grzmil, M. , Rzymski, T. , Milani, M. , Harris, AL. , et al.   (2010)   'An oncogenic role of eIF3e/INT6 in human breast cancer'. Oncogene, 29 (28).  pp. 4080 - 4089. doi: 10.1038/onc.2010.152 

Ballabio, E. , Mitchell, T. , van Kester, MS. , Taylor, S. , et al.   (2010)   'MicroRNA expression in Sezary syndrome: identification, function, and diagnostic potential'. Blood, 116 (7).  pp. 1105 - 1113. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-12-256719 

Lawrie, CH. , Chi, J. , Taylor, S. , Tramonti, D. , et al.   (2009)   'Expression of microRNAs in diffuse large B cell lymphoma is associated with immunophenotype, survival and transformation from follicular lymphoma'. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 13 (7).  pp. 1248 - 1260. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00628.x 

Yao, Y. , Zhao, Y. , Smith, LP. , Lawrie, CH. , et al.   (2009)   'Differential expression of microRNAs in Marek's disease virus-transformed T-lymphoma cell lines'. Journal of General Virology, 90 (Pt 7).  pp. 1551 - 1559. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.009902-0 

Jordan, PW.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2009)   'Host iron binding proteins acting as niche indicators for Neisseria meningitidis'. PLoS One, 4 (4).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005198 Download publication 

Okamoto, H. , Göbel, C. , Capper, RG. , Saunders, N. , et al.   (2009)   'The α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein affects jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana'. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60 (7).  pp. 1991 - 2003. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp060 

Waters, MT. , Wang, P. , Korkaric, M. , Capper, RG. , et al.   (2009)   'GLK transcription factors coordinate expression of the photosynthetic apparatus in Arabidopsis'. The Plant Cell, 21 (4).  pp. 1109 - 1128. doi: 10.1105/tpc.108.065250 Download publication 

Nichols, CE. , Sainsbury, S. , Ren, J. , Walter, TS. , et al.   (2009)   'The structure of NMB1585, a MarR-family regulator from Neisseria meningitidis'. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 65 (Pt 3).  pp. 204 - 209. doi: 10.1107/S174430910900414X Download publication 

Sainsbury, S. , Lane, LA. , Ren, J. , Gilbert, RJ. , et al.   (2009)   'The structure of CrgA from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a new octameric assembly state for LysR transcriptional regulators'. Nucleic Acids Research, 37 (14).  pp. 4545 - 4558. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp445 Download publication 

Howie, D. , Nolan, KF. , Daley, S. , Butterfield, E. , et al.   (2009)   'MS4A4B is a GITR-associated membrane adapter, expressed by regulatory T cells, which modulates T cell activation'. Journal of Immunology, 183 (7).  pp. 4197 - 4204. doi: 10.4049/​jimmunol.0901070 

Gamba, P. , Veening, JW. , Saunders, NJ. , Hamoen, LW.  and Daniel, RA.   (2009)   'Two-step assembly dynamics of the Bacillus subtilis divisome'. Journal of Bacteriology, 191 (13).  pp. 4186 - 4194. doi: 10.1128/JB.01758-08 

Lawrie, CH. , Saunders, NJ. , Soneji, S. , Palazzo, S. , et al.   (2008)   'MicroRNA expression in lymphocyte development and malignancy'. Leukemia, 22 pp. 1440 - 1446. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2405083 Download publication 

Harper, KN. , Ocampo, PS. , Steiner, BM. , George, RW. , et al.   (2008)   'On the origin of trepanomatoses: A phylogenetic approach'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2 (1).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000148 Download publication 

Ren, J. , Nettleship, JE. , Sainsbury, S. , Saunders, NJ.  and Owens, RJ.   (2008)   'Structure of the cold-shock domain protein from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a strand-exchanged dimer'. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 64 (Pt 4).  pp. 247 - 251. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108005411 Download publication 

Sainsbury, S. , Ren, J. , Saunders, NJ. , Stuart, DI.  and Owens, RJ.   (2008)   'Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CrgA, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis MC58'. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 64 (Pt 9).  pp. 797 - 801. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108024068 Download publication 

Whitehead, RN. , Overton, TW. , Snyder, LAS. , McGowan, SJ. , et al.   (2007)   'The small FNR regulon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Comparison with the larger E. coli FNR regulon and interaction with the NarQ-NarP regulon'. BMC Genomics, 8 doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-35 Download publication 

Bentley, SD. , Vernikos, GS. , Snyder, LAS. , Churcher, C. , et al.   (2007)   'Meningococcal genetic variation mechanisms viewed through comparative analysis of Serogroup C strain FAM18'. PLoS Genetics, 3 (2).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030023 Download publication 

Malhas, A. , Lee, CF. , Sanders, R. , Saunders, NJ.  and Vaux, DJ.   (2007)   'Defects in lamin B1 expression or processing affect interphase chromosome position and gene expression'. The Journal of Cell Biology, 176 (5).  pp. 593 - 603. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200607054 Download publication 

Ren, J. , Sainsbury, S. , Combs, SE. , Capper, RG. , et al.   (2007)   'The structure and transcriptional analysis of a global regulator from Neisseria meningitidis'. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282 (19).  pp. 14655 - 14664. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M701082200 

Yates, SF. , Paterson, AM. , Nolan, KF. , Cobbold, SP. , et al.   (2007)   'Induction of regulatory T cells and dominant tolerance by dendritic cells incapable of full activation'. Journal of Immunology, 179 (2).  pp. 967 - 976. 

Tett, A. , Spiers, AJ. , Crossman, LC. , Ager, D. , et al.   (2007)   'Sequence-based analysis of pQBR103; a representative of a unique, transfer-proficient mega plasmid resident in the microbial community of sugar beet'. ISME Journal, 1 (4).  pp. 331 - 340. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2007.47 

Bennett, JS. , Jolley, KA. , Sparling, PF. , Saunders, NJ. , et al.   (2007)   'Species status of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Evolutionary and epidemiological inferences from multilocus sequence typing'. BMC Biology, 5 doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-35 Download publication 

Snyder, LAS. , McGowan, S. , Rogers, M. , Duro, E. , et al.   (2007)   'The repertoire of minimal mobile elements in the Neisseria species and evidence that these are involved in horizontal gene transfer in other bacteria'. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24 (12).  pp. 2802 - 2815. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msm215 

Snyder, LAS.  and Saunders, N.   (2006)   'The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes''. BMC Genomics, 7 doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-128 Download publication 

Nichols, CE. , Sainsbury, S. , Berrow, NS. , Alderton, D. , et al.   (2006)   'Structure of the PII signal transduction protein of Neisseria meningitidis at 1.85 Ȃ resolution'. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 62 (Pt 6).  pp. 494 - 497. doi: 10.1107/S1744309106015430 Download publication 

Overton, TW. , Whitehead, R. , Li, Y. , Snyder, LAS. , et al.   (2006)   'Coordinated regulation of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae-truncated denitrification pathway by the Nitric Oxide-sensitive repressor, NsrR, and Nitrite-insensitive NarQ-NarP'. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281 (44).  pp. 33115 - 33126. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M607056200 

Salaün, L.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2006)   'Population-associated differences between the phase variable LPS biosynthetic genes of Helicobacter pylori'. BMC Microbiology, 6 doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-79 Download publication 

Gunesekere, IC. , Kahler, CM. , Ryan, CS. , Snyder, LAS. , et al.   (2006)   'Ecf, an alternative sigma factor from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, controls expression of msrAB, which encodes methionine sulfoxide reductase'. Journal of Bacteriology, 188 (10).  pp. 3463 - 3469. doi: 10.1128/JB.188.10.3463-3469.2006 

Gunesekere, IC. , Kahler, CM. , Powell, DR. , Snyder, LAS. , et al.   (2006)   'Comparison of the RpoH-dependent regulon and general stress response in Neisseria gonorrhoeae'. Journal of Bacteriology, 188 (13).  pp. 4769 - 4776. doi: 10.1128/JB.01807-05 

Saunders, NJ. , Boonmee, P. , Peden, JF.  and Jarvis, SA.   (2005)   'Inter-species horizontal transfer resulting in core-genome and niche-adaptive variation within Helicobacter pylori'. BMC Genomics, 6 doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-6-9 Download publication 

Salaün, L. , Ayraud, S.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2005)   'Phase variation mediated niche adaptation during prolonged experimental murine infection with Helicobacter pylori'. Microbiology, 151 (3).  pp. 917 - 923. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.27379-0 

Letarte, M. , Voulgaraki, D. , Hatherley, D. , Foster-Cuevas, M. , et al.   (2005)   'Analysis of leukocyte membrane protein interactions using protein microarrays'. BMC Biochemistry, 6 doi: 10.1186/1471-2091-6-2 Download publication 

Jordan, PW. , Snyder, LAS.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2005)   'Strain-specific differences in Neisseria gonorrhoeae associated with the phase variable gene repertoire'. BMC Microbiology, 5 doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-5-21 Download publication 

Herbert, MA. , Beveridge, CJE. , McCormick, D. , Aten, E. , et al.   (2005)   'Genetic islands of Streptococcus agalactiae strains NEM316 and 2603VR and their presence in other Group B Streptococcal strains'. BMC Microbiology, 5 doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-5-31 Download publication 

Snyder, LAS. , Davies, JK. , Ryan, CS.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2005)   'Comparative overview of the genomic and genetic differences between the pathogenic Neisseria strains and species'. Plasmid, 54 (3).  pp. 191 - 218. doi: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2005.04.005 

Snyder, LAS. , Jarvis, SA.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2005)   'Complete and variant forms of the ‘gonococcal genetic island’ in Neisseria meningitidis'. Microbiology, 151 (12).  pp. 4005 - 4013. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.27925-0 

Ren, JS. , Sainsbury, S. , Berrow, NS. , Alderton, D. , et al.   (2005)   'Crystal structure of nitrogen regulatory protein IIA(Ntr) from Neisseria meningitidis'. BMC Structural Biology, 5 doi: 10.1186/1472-6807-5-13 Download publication 

Snyder, LAS. , Davies, JK.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2004)   'Microarray genomotyping of key experimental strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveals gene complement diversity and five new neisserial genes associated with minimal mobile elements'. BMC Genomics, 5 doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-5-23 Download publication 

Salaün, L. , Linz, B. , Suerbaum, S.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2004)   'The diversity within an expanded and redefined repertoire of phase-variable genes in Helicobacter pylori'. Microbiology, 150 (4).  pp. 817 - 830. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.26993-0 

Herbert, MA. , Beveridge, CJE.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2004)   'Bacterial virulence factors in neonatal sepsis: Group B streptococcus'. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 17 (3).  pp. 225 - 229. 

Gravenor, MB.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2004)   'Estimation of mutation rates'. Biometrics, 60 (4).  pp. 1053 - 1054. doi: 10.1111/j.0006-341X.2004.261_1.x 

Jordan, P. , Snyder, LAS.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2003)   'Diversity in coding tandem repeats in related Neisseria spp'. BMC Microbiology, 3 doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-3-23 Download publication 

Salaün, L. , Snyder, LAS.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2003)   'Adaptation by phase variation in pathogenic bacteria'. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 52 pp. 263 - 301. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2164(03)01011-6 

Snyder, LAS. , Shafer, WM.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2003)   'Divergence and transcriptional analysis of the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster in Neisseria spp.'. Molecular Microbiology, 47 (2).  pp. 431 - 442. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03204.x 

Saunders, NJ. , Richard Moxon, E.  and Gravenor, MB.   (2003)   'Mutation rates: Estimating phase variation rates when fitness differences are present and their impact on population structure'. Microbiology, 149 (2).  pp. 485 - 495. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.25807-0 

Maloy, KJ. , Salaun, L. , Cahill, R. , Dougan, G. , et al.   (2003)   'CD4+CD25+ TR cells suppress innate immune pathology through cytokine-dependent mechanisms'. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 197 (1).  pp. 111 - 119. doi: 10.1084/jem.20021345 Download publication 

Moxon, ER. , Hood, DW. , Saunders, NJ. , Schweda, EKH.  and Richards, JC.   (2002)   'Functional genomics of pathogenic bacteria'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences, 357 (1417).  pp. 109 - 116. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0986 

Saunders, NJ.  and Snyder, LAS.   (2002)   'The minimal mobile element'. Microbiology, 148 (12).  pp. 3756 - 3760. 

Liu, SV. , Saunders, NJ. , Jeffries, A.  and Rest, RF.   (2002)   'Genome analysis and strain comparison of Correia repeats and Correia repeat-enclosed elements in pathogenic Neisseria'. Journal of Bacteriology, 184 (22).  pp. 6163 - 6173. doi: 10.1128/JB.184.22.6163-6173.2002 

Snyder, LAS. , Butcher, SA.  and Saunders, NJ.   (2001)   'Comparative whole genome analyses reveal over 100 putative phase variable genes in the pathogenic Neisseria spp'. Microbiology, 147 (8).  pp. 2321 - 2332. 

Snyder, LAS. , Saunders, NJ.  and Shafer, WM.   (2001)   'A putatively phase variable gene (dca) required for natural competence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae but not Neisseria meningitidis is located within the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster'. Journal of Bacteriology, 183 (4).  pp. 1233 - 1241. doi: 10.1128/JB.183.4.1233-1241.2001 

De Bolle, X. , Bayliss, CD. , Field, D. , Van De Ven, T. , et al.   (2000)   'The length of a tetranucleotide repeat tract in Haemophilus influenzae determines the phase variation rate of a gene with homology to type III DNA methyltransferases'. Molecular Microbiology. pp. 211 - 222. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01701.x 

Pizza, M. , Scarlato, V. , Masignani, V. , Giuliani, MM. , et al.   (2000)   'Identification of vaccine candidates against Serogroup B Meningococcus by whole-genome sequencing'. Science, 287 (5459).  pp. 1816 - 1820. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5459.1816 

Tettelin, H. , Saunders, NJ. , Heidelberg, J. , Jeffries, AC. , et al.   (2000)   'Complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Strain MC58'. Science, 287 (5459).  pp. 1809 - 1815. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5459.1809 

Saunders, NJ.  and Jeffries, AC.   (2000)   'The growing utility of microbial genome sequences (Meeting Report)'. Genome Biology, 1 (1).  doi: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-1-reports410 Download publication 

Saunders, NJ.   (2000)   'Working from the particular to the general: The development of comparative genomics - A meeting report from the 4th Annual Conference on Microbial Genomes'. Molecular Microbiology, 36 (5).  pp. 1034 - 1036. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01929.x 

Saunders, NJ. , Peden, JF.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (2000)   'DNA uptake sequences in Helicobacter pylori - Authors’ reply'. Microbiology, 146 (6).  pp. 1255 - 1256. 

Saunders, NJ. , Jeffries, AC. , Hood, DW.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (2000)   'High rates of phase variation in Campylobacter jejuni'. Molecular Microbiology, 36 (6).  pp. 1504 - 1505. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01947.x 

Saunders, NJ. , Jeffries, AC. , Peden, JF. , Hood, DW. , et al.   (2000)   'Repeat-associated phase variable genes in the complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58'. Molecular Microbiology, 37 (1).  pp. 207 - 215. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02000.x 

Saunders, NJ. , Hood, DW.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (1999)   'Bacterial evolution: Bacteria play pass the gene'. Current Biology, 9 (5).  pp. R180 - R183. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80108-0 

Saunders, NJ. , Peden, JF.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (1999)   'Absence in Helicobacter pylori of an uptake sequence for enhancing uptake of homospecific DNA during transformation'. Microbiology, 145 (12).  pp. 3523 - 3528. 

Shackley, F. , Roberts, P. , Heath, P. , Bowler, I.  and Saunders, NJ.   (1998)   'Trough-only monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations in neonates'. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 41 (1).  pp. 141 - 142. doi: 10.1093/jac/41.1.141 

Saunders, NJ. , Peden, JF. , Hood, DW.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (1998)   'Simple sequence repeats in the Helicobacter pylori genome'. Molecular Microbiology, 27 (6).  pp. 1091 - 1098. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00768.x 

Hosking, SL. , Deadman, ME. , Richard Moxon, E. , Peden, JF. , et al.   (1998)   'An in silico evaluation of Tn916 as a tool for generalized mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae Rd'. Microbiology, 144 (9).  pp. 2525 - 2530. doi: 10.1099/00221287-144-9-2525 

Saunders, NJ.  and Richard Moxon, E.   (1998)   'Implications of sequencing bacterial genomes for pathogenesis and vaccine development'. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 9 (6).  pp. 618 - 623. doi: 10.1016/S0958-1669(98)80140-7 

MacGowan, A. , Lovering, A. , White, L. , Reeves, D. , et al.   (1995)   'Why monitor peak vancomycin concentrations? - Letters to the Editor'. Lancet, 345 (8950).  pp. 645 - 647. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90546-4 

Esfahani, RF. , Saunders, N. , Ward, KN.  and Hodgson, HJF.   (1995)   'The spectrum of hepatitis C antibody positive disease in a teaching hospital'. Journal of Infection, 30 (2).  pp. 115 - 119. doi: 10.1016/S0163-4453(95)80005-0 

Saunders, NJ.   (1995)   'Vancomycin administration and monitoring reappraisal'. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 36 (2).  pp. 279 - 282. doi: 10.1093/jac/36.2.279 

Saunders, NJ. , Want, SV.  and Adams, DJ.   (1995)   'Assay of vancomycin by fluorescence polarisation immunoassay and EMIT in patients with renal failure'. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 36 (2).  pp. 411 - 415. doi: 10.1093/jac/36.2.411 

Saunders, NJ.  and Cohen, J.   (1995)   'A study of the interaction between recombinant bactericidal permeability increasing protein (rBPI23) and gentamicin'. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 5 (4).  pp. 259 - 263. doi: 10.1016/0924-8579(95)00012-W 

Saunders, NJ. , Adams, DJ.  and Lynn, WA.   (1995)   'A prospective laboratory-based audit of gentamicin use and therapeutic monitoring'. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 36 (4).  pp. 729 - 736. doi: 10.1093/jac/36.4.729 

Saunders, NJ.   (1994)   'Why monitor peak vancomycin concentrations?'. Lancet, 344 (8989-8940).  pp. 1748 - 1750. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)92890-8 

Whiting, PH. , Thomson, KJ. , Saunders, NJ.  and Simpson, JG.   (1990)   'The effects of cyclosporin A on glucose homeostasis and the kidney in the normal rat'. Journal of Experimental Pathology, 71 (2).  pp. 245 - 255. 

Whiting, PH. , Thomson, KJ. , Saunders, NJ.  and Simpson, JG.   (1989)   'Cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats'. Transplantation Proceedings, 21 (1 - Pt 1).  pp. 946 - 947. 

Thomson, KJ. , Saunders, NJ. , Simpson, JG.  and Whiting, PH.   (1989)   'Renal structure and function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with cyclosporin A'. British Journal of Experimental Pathology, 70 (4).  pp. 405 - 414. 

Simpson, JG. , Saunders, NJ. , Thomson, KJ.  and Whiting, PH.   (1988)   'Chronic renal damage caused by cyclosporine'. Transplantation Proceedings, 30 (3 Suppl 3).  pp. 792 - 799. 


Saunders, NJ.   (2009) Flu And You: Your Questions Answered, And What You Need To Know.  Twin Serpents Ltd 

Book chapters

Saunders, NJ.  and Davies, JK.  (2011)   'The use of the pan-Neisseria microarray and experimental design for transcriptomics studies of Neisseria', in Chrisodoulides, M. (ed.) Neisseria Meningitidis: Advanced Methods and Protocols.  Springer (799) : pp. 295 - 317. 

Snyder, LAS. , Snudden, G. , Haan, N.  and Saunders, NJ.  (2007)   'Comparative genomics: The nature of GCH analysis and data interpretation', in Falciani, F. (ed.) Microarray technology through applications.  Abingdon Taylor & Francis pp. 269 - 284. 

Saunders, N.  (2007)   'Protein microarrays', in Falciani, F. (ed.) Microarray technology through applications.  Abingdon Taylor & Francis pp. 211 - 226. 

Snyder, LAS. , Jordan, PW.  and Saunders, NJ.  (2007)   'Neisseria: A post-genomic view', in Pallen, MJ. , Nelson, KE.  and Preston, GM. (eds.) Bacterial pathogenomics.  Washington, DC American Society for Microbiology pp. 90 - 119. 

Saunders, NJ.  and Snyder, LAS.  (2005)   'The neisserial genomes: What they reveal about the diversity and behavior of these species', in Dunn, MJ. , Jorde, LB. , Little, PFR.  and Subramaniam, S. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics.  Wiley 

Saunders, NJ.  (2003)   'Evasion of antibody responses: Bacterial phase variation', in Henderson, B.  and Oyston, PCF. (eds.) Bacterial evasion of host immune responses.  Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp. 103 - 124. 

Saunders, NJ.  and Butcher, S.  (2003)   'The use of complete genome sequences in vaccine design', in Vaccine Protocols.  New Jersey Humana Press (87) : pp. 301 - 312. 

Jeffries, AC. , Saunders, NJ.  and Hood, DW.  (2001)   'Genome sequencing and annotation', in Pollard, AJ.  and Maiden, MCJ. (eds.) Meningococcal disease.  Humana Press Inc pp. 215 - 231. 

Whiting, PH. , Saunders, NJ. , Thomson, KJ.  and Simpson, JG.  (1989)   'Chronic renal tubular damage caused by Cyclosporin A', in Bach, PH.  and Lock, EA. (eds.) Nephrotoxicity: in vitro to in vivo, animals to man.  New York Plenum Publishing Corporation pp. 307 - 313. 

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