Tracy Hall


Dr Tracy Hall is the Head of Department and Professor in Software Engineering at Brunel University London. She currently leads the Brunel Software Engineering Research Lab. Previously she was Head of the Systems & Software Research Group at the University of Hertfordshire and Adjunct Professor of Industrial Systems in Simula at the University of Oslo. Dr Hall’s expertise is in Empirical Software Engineering research. Over the last 20 years she has conducted many empirical software engineering studies with a variety of industrial collaborators. Her current research activities focus on software fault prediction and the human aspects of software engineering. She has published over 100 international peer reviewed journal and conference papers and has been Principal Investigator on a variety of EPSRC projects. Dr Hall is a member of the Editorial Board for the Information Software Technology Journal and the Software Quality Journal. She is also a long standing member on many international conference programme committees. Dr Hall is a member of the EPSRC Peer College.

Research area(s)

Dr Tracy Hall’s research is all under the general umbrella of software engineering. Her research interests centre on empirical studies, many in collaboration with companies. Dr Tracy Hall current work is based around research into code faults. In particular work on the prediction of fault-prone code. However her interest in human factors has also resulted in beginning to look at some of the human issues around the errors that developers make in code that result in particular types of faults. Dr Tracy Hall is also interested in the detection and analysis of bad smells in code.


Research project(s) and grant(s)

Dr Tracy Hall’s past funded research projects include: Using Program Slicing to Size Code Change (EP/F010206), Investigating code fault proneness using program slicing (EP/E063039), Understanding motivation in software engineering (EP/D057272/1) , Improving Software Quality (GR/L91962).

Dr Tracy Hall’s current funded research projects include: Using Fault Characterisitcs to Improve Software Fault Prediction (EP/L011751/1)

Research group(s)



Dr Tracy Hall currently teaches on the following modules at Brunel University London:

BSc Final Year Software Engineering (CS3003)

BSc Final Year Project Management (CS3100)

MSc Project Management (CS5515)

Research supervision

Dr Nathan Baddoo Motivating software engineers 2002 First supervisor

Dr Sarah Beecham CMM-based requirements engineering 2004 First supervisor

Dr Rizwan Ahmed A simulation process 2006 First supervisor

Dr Nilay Oza Software outsourcing in India 2006 First supervisor

Dr Nan Ma Negotiation of conflict in requirements 2009 First supervisor

Dr Min Zhang Code Bad Smells and Faults 2010 First supervisor

Dr Matt Gattral (pt) Refactoring software 2012 Second supervisor

Dr David Bowes Fault prediction 2013 Second supervisor

Eisha Hasnain Trust in agile methods current First supervisor

Tom Shippey Code clones and faults current Second supervisor

Bilyaminu Auwal Romo Defect inducing changes current Second supervisor

Ahmmad Youssef Evaluating open source systems current Second supervisor

Naiya Pannu Code bad smells current Second supervisor

Selected Publications

Journal articles

Hall, T. , Zhang, M. , Bowes, D.  and Sun, Y.   (2014)   'Some Code Smells Have a Significant but Small Effect on Faults'. ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND METHODOLOGY, 23 (4).  pp. . doi: 10.1145/2629648 

Shepperd, M. , Bowes, D.  and Hall, T.   (2014)   'Researcher bias: The use of machine learning in software defect prediction'. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 40 (6).  pp. 603 - 616. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2014.2322358 Download publication 

Verner, JM. , Babar, MA. , Cerpa, N. , Hall, T.  and Beecham, S.   (2014)   'Factors that motivate software engineering teams: A four country empirical study'. Journal of Systems and Software, 92 (1).  pp. 115 - 127. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2014.01.008 

Bowes, D. , Hall, T.  and Gray, D.   (2014)   'DConfusion: a technique to allow cross study performance evaluation of fault prediction studies'. AUTOMATED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 21 (2).  pp. 287 - 313. doi: 10.1007/s10515-013-0129-8 

Bowes, D. , Randall, D.  and Hall, T.   (2013)   'The Inconsistent Measurement of Message Chains'. 2013 4TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON EMERGING TRENDS IN SOFTWARE METRICS (WETSOM). pp. 62 - 68. 

Hall, T. , Beecham, S. , Bowes, D. , Gray, D.  and Counsell, S.   (2012)   'A systematic literature review of fault prediction performance in software engineering'. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 38 (6).  pp. 1276 - 1304. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2011.103 Download publication 

Hall, T. , Beecham, S. , Bowes, D. , Gray, D.  and Counsell, S.   (2011)   'Developing fault-prediction models: What the research can show industry'. IEEE Software, 28 (6).  pp. 96 - 99. doi: 10.1109/MS.2011.138 

Hall, T. , Beecham, S. , Bowes, D. , Gray, D.  and Counsell, S.   (2011)   'VOICE OF EVIDENCE Developing Fault-Prediction Models: What the Research Can Show Industry'. IEEE SOFTWARE, 28 (6).  pp. 96 - 99. doi: 10.1109/MS.2011.138 

Zhang, M. , Hall, T.  and Baddoo, N.   (2011)   'Code bad smells: a review of current knowledge'. Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: research and practice, 23 (3).  pp. 179 - 202. doi: 10.1002/smr.521 

Counsell, S. , Hall, T.  and Bowes, D.   (2010)   'A theoretical and empirical analysis of three slice-based metrics for cohesion'. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 20 (5).  pp. 609 - 636. doi: 10.1142/S0218194010004888 

Sharp, H. , Baddoo, N. , Beecham, S. , Hall, T.  and Robinson, H.   (2009)   'Models of motivation in software engineering'. Information and Software Technology Journal, 51 (1).  pp. 219 - 233. doi: 10.1016/j.infsof.2008.05.009 

Hall, T. , Baddoo, N. , Beecham, S. , Robinson, H.  and Sharp, H.   (2009)   'A systematic review of theory use in studies investigating the motivations of software engineers'. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM), 18 (3).  doi: 10.1145/1525880.1525883 

Beecham, S. , Baddoo, N. , Hall, T. , Robinson, H.  and Sharp, H.   (2008)   'Motivation in software engineering: a systematic literature review'. Information and Software Technology, 50 (9-10).  pp. 860 - 878. doi: 10.1016/j.infsof.2007.09.004 

Ahmed, R. , Hall, T. , Wernick, P. , Robinson, S.  and Shah, M.   (2008)   'Software process simulation modelling: A survey of practice'. Journal of Simulation Modelling, 2 (2).  pp. 91 - 102. doi: 10.1057/jos.2008.1 

Hall, T. , Sharp, H. , Beecham, S. , Baddoo, N.  and Robinson, H.   (2008)   'Voice of evidence - what do we know about developer motivation?'. IEEE Software, 25 (4).  pp. 92 - 94. doi: 10.1109/MS.2008.105 

Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and O'Keeffe, C.   (2007)   'Using multi dimensional scaling to analyse software engineers' de-motivators for SPI'. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 12 (6).  pp. 511 - 522. doi: 10.1002/spip.352 

Hall, T. , Jagielska, D.  and Baddoo, N.   (2007)   'Motivating developer performance to improve project outcomes in a high maturity organization'. Software Quality Journal, 15 (4).  pp. 365 - 381. doi: 10.1007/s11219-007-9028-1 

Oza, N. , Hall, T. , Rainer, A.  and Grey, S.   (2006)   'Trust in software outsourcing to India'. Information and Software Technology, 48 (5).  pp. 345 - 354. doi: 10.1016/j.infsof.2005.09.011 

Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and Jagielska, D.   (2006)   'Software developer motivation in a high maturity company: a case study'. Journal of Software Process Improvement and Practice, 11 (3).  pp. 219 - 228. doi: 10.1002/spip.265 

Oza, NV.  and Hall, T.   (2005)   'Difficulties in managing offshore outsourcing relationships: an empirical analysis of 18 high maturity Indian software companies'. Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, 7 (3).  pp. 25 - 41. 

Beecham, S. , Hall, T.  and Rainer, A.   (2005)   'Defining a requirements process improvement model'. Software Quality Journal, 13 (3).  pp. 247 - 279. doi: 10.1007/s11219-005-1752-9 

Beecham, S. , Hall, T. , Britton, C. , Cottee, M.  and Rainer, A.   (2005)   'Using an expert panel to validate a requirements software process improvement model'. Journal of Systems and Software, 76 (3).  pp. 251 - 275. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2004.06.004 

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2004)   'Can Thomas Kuhn's paradigms help us understand software engineering?'. European Journal of Information Systems, 13 (3).  pp. 235 - 243. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000501 

Beecham, S. , Hall, T.  and Rainer, A.   (2003)   'Software process improvement problems in twelve software companies: An empirical analysis'. Empirical Software Engineering, 8 (1).  pp. 7 - 42. doi: 10.1023/A:1021764731148 

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2003)   'Simulating global software evolution processes by combining simple models: an initial study'. Journal of Software Processes Improvement and Practice, 7 (3-4).  pp. 113 - 126. doi: 10.1002/spip.159 

Baddoo, N.  and Hall, T.   (2003)   'De-motivators for software process improvement: an analysis of practitioners' views'. Journal of Systems and Software, 66 (1).  pp. 23 - 33. doi: 10.1016/S0164-1212(02)00060-2 

Rainer, A.  and Hall, T.   (2003)   'A quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors affecting software processes'. Journal of Systems and Software, 66 (1).  pp. 7 - 21. doi: 10.1016/S0164-1212(02)00059-6 

Hall, T. , Rainer, A.  and Baddoo, N.   (2002)   'Implementing software process improvement: an empirical study'. Journal of Software Processes Improvement and Practice, 7 (1).  pp. 3 - 15. doi: 10.1002/spip.150 

Baddoo, N.  and Hall, T.   (2002)   'Software process improvement motivators: an analysis using multidimensional scaling'. Empirical Software Engineering Journal, 7 (2).  pp. 93 - 114. doi: 10.1023/A:1015203013834 

Hall, T. , Beecham, S.  and Rainer, A.   (2002)   'Requirements problems in twelve software companies: an empirical analysis'. IEE Proceedings - Software, 149 (5).  pp. 153 - 160. doi: 10.1049/ip-sen:20020694 

Baddoo, N.  and Hall, T.   (2002)   'Motivators of software process improvement: an analysis of practitioners' views'. Journal of Systems and Software, 62 (2).  pp. 85 - 96. 

Baddoo, N.  and Hall, T.   (2002)   'Practitioner roles in software process improvement: an analysis using grid technique'. Journal of Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 7 (1).  pp. 17 - 31. doi: 10.1002/spip.151 

Rainer, A.  and Hall, T.   (2002)   'Key success factors for implementing software process improvement: a maturity-based analysis'. Journal of Systems and Software, 62 (2).  pp. 71 - 84. doi: 10.1016/S0164-1212(01)00122-4 

Hall, T.  and Flynn, V.   (2001)   'Ethical issues in software engineering research: a survey of current practice'. Empirical Software Engineering Journal, 6 (4).  pp. 305 - 317. doi: 10.1023/A:1011922615502 

Rainer, A.  and Hall, T.   (2001)   'An analysis of some 'core studies' of software process improvement'. Journal of Software Process Improvement Practice and Experience, 6 (4).  pp. 169 - 187. doi: 10.1002/spip.147 

Wilson, DN. , Hall, T.  and Baddoo, N.   (2001)   'A framework for evaluation and prediction of software process improvement success'. Journal of Systems and Software, 59 (2).  pp. 135 - 142. doi: 10.1016/S0164-1212(01)00057-7 

Book chapters

Hall, T. , Bowes, D. , Liebchen, G.  and Wernick, P.  (2010)   'Evaluating three approaches to extracting fault data from software change repositories', in Babar, MA. , Vierimaa, M.  and Oivo, M. (eds.) Product-focused Software Process Improvement: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010.  Berlin/Heidelberg Springer-Verlag (6156/2010) : pp. 107 - 115. 

Rosner, P. , Hall, T.  and Mayer, T.  (2001)   'Measuring object-orientedness: the invocation profile', in Goos, G. , Hartmanis, J.  and van Leeuwen, J. (eds.) New Approaches in Software Measurement.  Berlin/Heidelberg Springer pp. 18 - 28. 

Conference papers

Bowes, D. , Hall, T.  and Petrić, J.   (2015)   'Different classifiers find different defects although with different level of consistency' . doi: 10.1145/2810146.2810149 

Hall, T.  and Bowes, D.   (2012)   'The state of machine learning methodology in software fault prediction' . doi: 10.1109/ICMLA.2012.226 

Bowes, D. , Hall, T.  and Beecham, S.   (2012)   'SLuRp - A tool to help large complex systematic literature reviews deliver calid and rigorous results' . doi: 10.1145/2372233.2372243 

Bowes, D. , Hall, T.  and Kerr, A.   (2011)   'Program slicing-based cohesion measurement: The challenges of replicating studies using metrics' . doi: 10.1145/1985374.1985392 

Zhang, M. , Baddoo, N. , Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2009)   'Improving the Precision of Fowler's Definitions of Bad Smells' , 32nd Annual IEEE Software Engineering Workshop. Kassandra, GREECE. 1 - 16 October. IEEE COMPUTER SOC, pp. 161 - +. doi: 10.1109/SEW.2008.26 

Zhang, M. , Hall, T. , Baddoo, N.  and Wernick, P.   (2008)   'Do bad smells indicate "Trouble" in code?' . doi: 10.1145/1390817.1390831 

Hasnain, E.  and Hall, T.   (2008)   'Investigating the role of trust in agile methods using a light weight systematic literature review' , 9th International Conference on Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Porgramming. Limerick, Ireland. 10 - 14 June. Springer, pp. 204 - 207. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-68255-4_22 

Sharp, H. , Hall, T. , Baddoo, N.  and Beecham, S.   (2007)   'Exploring motivational differences between software developers and project managers' , ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering. [unpublished].  

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2007)   'Getting the best out of software process simulation and empirical research in software engineering' , IEEE ICSE Workshop: Realising Evidence-Based Software Engineering. [unpublished].  

Hall, T.   (2007)   'Longitudinal studies in evidence-based software engineering' , Empirical Software Engineering Issues. Critical Assessment and Future Directions. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-71301-2_14 

Gallagher, K. , Hall, T.  and Black, S.   (2007)   'Reducing regression test size by exclusion' , IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance. [unpublished].  

Hall, T. , Beecham, S. , Verner, J.  and Wilson, D.   (2007)   'The impact of staff turnover on software projects: the importance of understanding what makes software practitioners tick' , ACM-SIGMIS CPR'08 Conference. [unpublished].  

Beecham, S. , Sharp, H. , Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and Robinson, H.   (2007)   'Does the XP environment meet the motivational needs of the software developer? An empirical study' , Agile 2007 Conference. [unpublished].  

Beecham, S. , Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and Sharp, H.   (2007)   'Performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering: an experience report' , Workshop of Empirical Software Engineering (WSESE). [unpublished].  

Black, S. , Counsell, S. , Hall, T.  and Wernick, P.   (2006)   'Using program slicing to identify faults in software' , Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings

Jagielska, D. , Hall, T.  and Baddoo, N.   (2006)   'Developer performance, motivation and project outcomes in a high maturity organization: a case study' , BCS Software Quality Management Conference. [unpublished].  

Wernick, P. , Hall, T.  and Nehaniv, CL.   (2006)   'Software evolutionary dynamics modelled as the activity of an actor-network' , Second International IEEE ICSM Workshop on Software Evolvability (SE'06). [unpublished].  

Kalleberg, KT. , Hall, T.  and Ettinger, R.   (2006)   'Making slicing mainstream, how can we be Weiser?' , Beyond Program Slicing

Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and O'Keeffe, C.   (2006)   'Using multi dimensional scaling to analyse software engineers' de-motivators for SPI' , EuroSPI. [unpublished].  

Hall, T.  and Wernick, P.   (2005)   'Using program slicing metrics to predict software maintainability' , ASTREnet Workshop. [unpublished].  

Oza, N.  and Hall, T.   (2005)   'Difficulties in managing offshore outsourcing relationships: an empirical analysis of 18 high maturity indian software companies' , 4th International Outsourcing Conference. [unpublished].  

Hall, T. , Rainer, A.  and Jagielska, D.   (2005)   'Using software development progress data to understand threats to project outcomes' , IEEE International Metrics Symposium. [unpublished].  

Hall, T.  and Wernick, P.   (2005)   'Using program slicing metrics to predict software maintainability' , IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance. [unpublished].  

Oza, N. , Hall, T. , Rainer, A.  and Grey, S.   (2005)   'Trust in software outsourcing to India' , EASE 2005. [unpublished].  

Hall, T.  and Wernick, P.   (2005)   'Using program slicing to predict the evolution of software' , IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance: Special Session of Software Evolvability. [unpublished].  

Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and Jagielska, D.   (2005)   'Software developer motivation in a high maturity company: a case study' , EuroSPI. [unpublished].  

Rainer, A. , Jagielska, D.  and Hall, T.   (2005)   'Software engineering practice and evidence based software engineering research' , IEEE ICSE Workshop: Realising Evidence-Based Software Engineering. [unpublished].  

Ahmed, R. , Hall, T. , Wernick, P.  and Robinson, S.   (2005)   'Evaluating a rapid simulation modelling process (RSMP) through controlled experiments' , IEEE International Empirical Software Engineering Conference. [unpublished].  

Saward, G.  and Hall, T.   (2005)   'Using existing website ontologies to assist navigation and exploration' , AWIC2005: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. [unpublished].  

Oza, N. , Hall, T. , Rainer, A.  and Grey, S.   (2004)   'Critical factors in software outsourcing - a pilot study' , ACM SIGSOFT 2004/FSE-12 Workshop on Interdisciplinary Software Engineering Research. [unpublished].  

Rainer, A.  and Hall, T.   (2004)   'Identifying the causes of poor progress in software projects' , IEEE Metrics Conference. [unpublished].  

Beecham, S. , Hall, T.  and Rainer, A.   (2004)   'A software requirements maturity model' , EuroSPI. [unpublished].  

Ahmed, R. , Hall, T. , Wernick, P.  and Robinson, S.   (2004)   'Practices of ProSim03 modellers: a survey' , ProSim04, ICSE Workshop. [unpublished].  

Baddoo, N. , Hall, T.  and Wilson, D.   (2004)   'Agile methods and motivation: a position paper' , Annual British Academy of Management Conference. [unpublished].  

Saward, G. , Hall, T.  and Barker, T.   (2004)   'Information scent as a measure of usability' , IEEE Metrics Conference. [unpublished].  

Ahmed, R. , Hall, T. , Wernick, P.  and Robinson, S.   (2004)   'Evaluating the quality of software process simulation models' , 2nd Simulation Workshop: UK Operational Research Society. [unpublished].  

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2004)   'A policy investigation model for long-term software evolution processes' , ProSim 2004, ICSE Workshop. [unpublished].  

Baddoo, N.  and Hall, T.   (2004)   'SPI managers' experiences and opinion on SPI in practice' , EuroSPI. [unpublished].  

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2004)   'The impact of using pair programming on system evolution: a simulation-based study' , IEEE Software Maintenance Conference. [unpublished].  

Oza, N. , Hall, T.  and Rainer, A.   (2003)   'The role of trust in software outsourcing' , IEEE International Conference in Software Engineering. [unpublished].  

Wernick, P.  and Hall, T.   (2003)   'Simulating global software evolution processes by combining simple models: an initial study' , ProSim. [unpublished].  

Rainer, A. , Hall, T.  and Baddoo, N.   (2003)   'Persuading developers to buy-in to software process improvement: an exploratory analysis' , ACM-IEEE international Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering. [unpublished].  

Ahmed, R. , Hall, T.  and Wernick, P.   (2003)   'A proposed framework for evaluating software process simulation models' , ProSim 2003. [unpublished].  

Hall, T. , Beecham, S.  and Rainer, A.   (2002)   'Requirements problems in twelve software companies: an empirical analysis' , EASE. [unpublished].  

Hall, T. , Baddoo, N.  and Wilson, D.   (2001)   'Measurement in software process improvement programmes: an empirical study' , IWSM2000. Springer, pp. 73 - 83. doi: 10.1007/3-540-44704-0_6 

Rainer, A. , Hall, T. , Wilson, D.  and Baddoo, N.   (2001)   'An overview of the products, processes and people project' , 6th UK Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) Conference. [unpublished].  

Hall, T. , Rainer, A. , Baddoo, N.  and Beecham, S.   (2001)   'An empirical study of maintenance issues within process improvement programmes in the software industry' , IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance. [unpublished].  doi: 10.1109/ICSM.2001.972755 

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