Copying for personal use
You may photocopy a limited amount of published material for yourself, unless you are doing commercial research. This is called fair dealing.
Copying by libraries
A library is permitted to copy and supply an article from a journal issue or a chapter from a book held in its stock, to a user from another library for private study or non-commercial research. This is referred to as document supply or interlibrary loan.
The library must have received a copyright declaration that has been personally signed by the requester before the copy can be passed on. Electronic signatures, although valid for some transactions, are not acceptable as a personal signature on a copyright declaration, as defined in Schedule 10 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Copying for course packs under the CLA Higher Education Photocopying and Scanning Licence
The University holds a photocopying and scanning licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) which permits staff and students to make multiple (or systematic) copies for teaching and learning from books, journals and copyright cleared materials held in the University's collections.
Most print stock will be covered by the licence, however, prior to copying, users should check that the material being copied is not included on the list of excluded works and categories published on the CLA website.
The licence also allows some print materials to be scanned and added to course collections in the VLE, subject to terms and conditions. More information on scanning for teaching under the CLA Licence is available on the Scanning web page.
Lecturers' own copies of textbooks or journals, or photocopies made for private use are not licensed for further copying under the CLA Licence.
Paper to paper copying from books, journals and magazines
The University has a licence with the Copyright Licensing Agency, which is a blanket licence enabling multiple copies to be made from print materials for educational purposes.
Not all material in print is covered - some categories of material are excluded, including printed music, maps, and privately owned documents. There are also excluded publications for which copying rights must be negotiated directly with the publisher. The Copyright Licensing Agency have published a list of excluded categories and excluded works on their website.
The licence allows Brunel staff to make photocopies of journal articles and book chapters for each student in a particular class (plus one for the teacher). The readings can also be put together to form a course pack for no extra charge. Under the Licence staff may copy:
- up to 5% or one complete chapter (whichever is the greater) from a book
- up to 5% or one whole article (whichever is the greater) from a single issue of a journal
- up to 5% or one paper (whichever is the greater) from a set of conference proceedings
- up to 5% of an anthology of short stories or poems or one short story or one poem of not more than 10 pages (whichever is the greater)
- up to 5% or one single case (whichever is the greater) from a published report of judicial proceedings
Paper to digital copying from books, journals and magazines
The CLA Licence also permits scanning of extracts from UK published print material for use in the VLE.
This means that electronic course packs can be made and linked to course materials within the VLE, which can then be downloaded onto CD-ROM or other digital storage media by students. The copying limits are the same as for copying from paper to paper mentioned above and apply per module.
Material already in digital format cannot be used under this licence. For instance, if the Library owned both a print and electronic version of a journal article, the electronic version cannot be placed in the VLE under the licence which only covers scanning from print materials. Additionally, the reason why the print version has been scanned when an electronic version is available must be reported to the Copyright Licensing Agency. Some electronic material may be covered separately for use in the VLE - check the terms and conditions for individual subscriptions and websites.
In order to comply with the terms of the licence, new procedures for adding copyright material to the VLE now apply. Any member of Brunel staff may carry out scanning, but prior authorisation must be obtained from the Copyright and Digital Resources Officer. See the web page on scanning for further information on requirements.
Copying from newspapers
The University also has a licence from the Newspaper Licensing Agency which allows multiple copying of cuttings from newspapers for teaching. It also allows the inclusion of photocopies from newspapers in course packs for students. UK national newspapers included in the Licence are indicated on the Newspaper Licensing Agency website. Brunel's agreement includes copying from the Hounslow Borough Chronicle, Hounslow Guardian, Richmond and Twickenham Times, Uxbridge Gazette and Uxbridge Times.