Some of our most frequently asked questions:
1. When should I include page numbers in my citation?
Always include page numbers if you are making a direct quote
Include page numbers if you are referring to an idea expressed on a particular page
If you are referring to ideas expressed throughout a chapter or throughout a whole book/article, there is no need to include page numbers in your citation.
2. How should I reference the work of another author cited in something I’ve read?
For example, the book you have read is by Smith but cites work by Jones that you would like to use. If possible, always read the original work, in this example, by Jones.
Alternatively, you can reference this as a secondary reference:
Your citation would read: (Jones, 2001, cited in Smith, 2004, p.77).
Your reference at the end would use the details of the book you have read: Smith, A. (2004) etc…
3. How do I reference something with no date?
If no date is given, more usually with webpages, use (no date).
Your citation would read: (Smith, no date)
Your reference would read: Smith, A. (no date) etc…
4. How do I cite 2 different works by the same author in the same year?
If the same author has written 2 or more works in the same year, distinguish between them by adding a, b,…into the citation.
For example, your citations would read: (Smith, 2004a), and the 2nd (Smith, 2004b)
Similarly, your reference list would read:
Smith, A. (2004a) etc…
Smith, A. (2004b) etc...
5. Do I have to list all the authors?
If a title is by more than 3 authors, your citation should list the first author followed by et al.
Your citation would read: (Smith, et al. 2004).
Your reference, however, should include all of the named authors.
6. Do the in-text citations always have to go in brackets?
No, as long as the citation clearly refers to the relevant information you can put this in a way that works best for the sentence. Some examples are:
- Smith (2002) argues …
- In a recent study (Smith, 2002) …
- Smith conducted his first study in 2002. He found that …
7. Where can I get help with referencing?
Your module/course handbook - check this for any specific requirement.
This Harvard Referencing guide lists the most popular types of reference.
Visit the Pod! Subject Librarians staff an enquiries Pod, Mon-Fri, 1-5. The Pod is situated on the Ground Floor in the Library in the ASK area.