The group plans to maintain and extend its international collaborations. It is intended to foster partnerships within the group and collaboration with other groups. In particular, research on novel heuristic optimisation techniques for smart grids should have benefits for many of the technological applications areas of interest to the group. Energy utilities continue to undergo rapid technological change as a consequence of international de-regulation and the increasing importance of alternative and renewable energy sources. The research group intends to respond to evolving research requirements in these fields and also (where possible) to anticipate future needs, for example producing novel algorithms for the operation of power systems as transactive energy markets, incorporating risk management under technical and financial uncertainties.