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 Robin Willson

Robin Willson


  • Departments of Biology & Biochemistry 1973 -1997
  • Head of Department of Biochemistry 1984-1987

On his retirement in 1997, Professor Robin Linhope Willson was awarded the title of Emeritus Professor of the University.

Robin is a physical biochemist interested in science and engineering generally, and in art and design. He has considerable experience in medical research and in science outreach, both in the UK and in Argentina were he presently resides.

Robin joined Brunel in 1973 from the Cancer Research Campaign's Gray Laboratory. With the strong support of the then Vice-Chancellor Stephen Bragg and the then Professor of Industrial Chemistry, Geoffrey Bond, he was instrumental in setting up with the late Professor Trevor Slater, the Brunel Biochemistry Linear Accelerator Radiation facility. He directed this, in addition to teaching and other university duties, until his retirement.

Robin has a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Durham and a PhD and DSc from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. In 1998 he was also awarded the title of Honorary Professor by the University of Buenos Aires. Whilst at Brunel he was the principal author of many original scientific papers on the role of free radicals in tissue injury. He gave many invited lectures, organised several international research conferences and was a consultant for a number of pharmaceutical companies. He pioneered the formation of the International Society for Free Radical Research. Together with the late Professor of Government, Maurice Kogan, and Professor Patrick Riley, an external Brunel examiner from University College London, Robin was also a co-founder of the National Conference of University Professors.

Whilst at Brunel, Robin gave many school and lay lectures and media interiews related to medicine, nutrition, radiation and the environment. He was also one of the principal pioneers of the University's use of the world wide web and chaired the first committee meetings overseeing the management and design of the University's webpages.

But in the, perhaps plaintive, words of the former Vice-Chancellor Michael Stirling "it will be for his work with Magic Pennies that Robin might one day be most remembered".

With the enthusiastic support of Professor Heinz Wolff and Tony Anson in the Bioengineering department, the valuable collaboration of Patrick Riley and the skilled help of a Brunel Engineering student Daniel Harris*, Robin organized the launch of the Magic Penny Magnet kit at an exhibition at Brunel in November 1995.

The kit, sponsored by Brunel, the Institute of Physics and the Royal Institution is now into its 4th edition. In the United States 20 years on, it is more popular than ever. A paper describing how magnetic coins and the specially designed magnets can be used in mathematical studies of circle packing was published in the proceedings of the 2015 Bridges Conference on Mathematics and Art, in Baltimore USA. The paper received excellent comments from the peer reviewers. The kit remains hardly known amongst academics and educationalists in the UK.

In Patagonia Argentina, Robin continues working voluntarily with friends in Ciencias y Artes Patagonia on STEM and STEAM projects related to astronomy and exploration. It is hoped that together with "Magic Pennies" they will help to increase awareness of the importance of hands-on experimentation and cooperation in science, engineering and the arts, and the need to preserve the natural and cultural heritage of this beautiful region.

*Daniel Harris (Brunel 1991-1995) is now Associate Director at General Motors in Detroit.


M.Sc. Dissertation "Reducing Species in gamma-irradiated Aqueous Systems", 1963. (Supervisor: J.J. Weiss)

Ph.D. Thesis "Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Nucleic Acid and Related Compounds",1966. (Supervisor: G. Scholes)

Scholes,G., Shaw,P., Willson,R.L. and Ebert,M. (1965) "Pulse Radiolysis Studies of Aqueous Solutions of Nucleic Acid and Related Substances" in 'Pulse Radiolysis', ed. Ebert, Keene, Swallow and Baxendale Academic Press, London and New York, 151-164.

Scholes, G. and Willson, R.L. (1967) " Gamma-Radiolysis of Aqueous Thymine Solutions" Trans. Faraday Soc., 63. 2983-2993.

Emmerson, P.T. and Willson, R.L. (1968) "Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Thymine and TriacetoneamineN-oxyl" J. Phys. Chem., 72, 3669-3671.

Scholes,G., Willson,R.L., and Ebert,M. (1969) "Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Solution of Deoxyribonucleotides of DNA: Reaction with Hydroxy-Radicals" Chem.Comm. 17-18.

Adams,G.E., Michael,B.D., and Willson,R.L. (1969) "Electron Transfer Studies by Pulse Radiolysis" Advances in Chemistry Series 81. 289-308.

Adams,G.E., Michael,B.D. and Willson,R.L. (1969) "Electron Transfer Studies by Pulse Radiolysis" Advances in Chemistry Series 81. 289-308

Adams,G.E., Armstrong,R.C., Charlesby,A., Michael,B.D. and Willson,R.L. (1969) "Pulse Radiolysis of Sulphur Compounds: Part III". Trans. Faraday Soc., 65, 732-742.

Aldrich,J.E., Cundall,R.B., Adams,G.E. and Willson,R.L. (1969). "Identification of Essential Residues in Lysozyme: A Pulse Radiolysis Method" Nature, 221, 1049-1050.

Adams,G.E. and Willson,R.L. (1969) "Pulse Radiolysis Studies on the Oxidation of Organic Radicals in Aqueous Solution" Trans. Faraday Soc., 65, 2981-2987.

Adams,G.E., Willson,R.L., Aldrich,J.E. and Cundall,R.B. (1969) "On the Mechanism of the Radiation-Induced Inactivation of Lysozyme in Dilute Aqueous Solution" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 16, 333-342.

Fielden,E.M. Stevens,G.C., Phillips,J.M., Scholes,G., and Willson,R.L. (1970) "Effects Due to Non-Equilibrium pH Conditions on the Radiolysis of Aqueous Systems" Nature, 225, 632-634.

Willson,R.L. (1970) "The Reaction of Oxygen with Radiation-Induced Free Radicals in DNA and Related Compounds" Int.J.Rad.Biol., 17 349-358.

Greenstock,C.L., Adams,G.E., and Willson,R.L. (1970) "Electron Transfer Studies of Nucleic Acid Derivatives in Solutions Containing Radiosensitisers" in 'Radiation Protection and Sensitisation', ed. Moroson and Quintiliani, Taylor and Francis, London. 65-71.

Willson,R.L. and Emmerson, P.T. (1970) "Reaction of Triacetonamine-N-oxyl with Radiation-Induced Radicals from DNA and from Deoxyribonucleotides in Aqueous Solution". ibid 73-79.

Willson,R.L. (1970) "Pulse Radiolysis Studies of Electron Transfer in Aerobic Solution" Chem. Comm. 1005.

Willson,R.L. (1970) "Pulse Radiolysis Studies of Electron Transfer in Aqueous Disulphide Solutions" Chem. Comm. 1425-1426.

Adams,G.E., Cundal,R.B., and Willson,R.L. (1970) "Pulse Radiolysis: An Oxidative-Reductive Probe in General Biochemical and Enzyme Studies" in 'Chemical Reactivity and Biological Role of Functional Groups in Enzymes' ed. Smellie (Academic Press, London and New York) 171-182.

Adams,G.E., and Willson,R.L. (1970) "Pulse Radiolysis Studies on Reactive Intermediate in Organic Chemical Processes" Annual Reports B. Chem.Soc., 207-218.

Adams,G.E., Asquith,J.C., Dewey,D.L., Foster,J.L., Michael,B.D., and Willson,R.L. (1971). "Electron Affinic Sensitisation. II: p-Nitroacetophenone. A. Radiosensitiser for Anoxic Bacterial and Mammalian Cells" Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 19, 575-585.

Willson, R.L. (1971). "Pulse Radiolysis Studies on the Reaction of Triacetoneamine-N-oxyl with Radiation-Induced Free Radicals" Trans. Faraday Soc., 67, 3008-3019.

Willson,R.L. (1971). "Pulse Radiolysis Studies of Electron Transfer in Aqueous Quinone Solutions" Trans. Faraday Soc., 67, 3021-3029.

Willson,R.L., Greenstock,C.L., Adams,G.E., Wageman,R., and Dorfman,L.M. (1971). "The Standardisation of Hydroxyl Radical Rate Data from Radiation Chemistry" Int. J. Rad. Phys. Chem.. 3. 211-220.

Willson,R.L. (1971). "Semiquinone Free Radicals: Determination of Acid Dissociation Constants by Pulse Radiolysis" Chem. Comm., 1249-1250.

Adams,G.E., Bisby,R.H., Cundall,R.B., and Willson,R.L. (1971). "On the Mechanism of the Radiation-Induced Inactivation of Ribonuclease" Int.J.Rad.Biol., 20. 405-415.

Adams,G.E., Greenstock,C.L., van Hemmen,J.J. and Willson,R.L. (1972) "Radical Oxidation Mechanisms in Cellular Radiosensitisation. I: Electron Transfer in the Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Nucleotide Solutions" Radiat.Res. 49. 85-95.

Adams,G.E., Aldrich,J.E., Bisby,R.H., Cundall,R.B., Redpath,J.L. and Willson,R.L. (1972). "Selective Free Radical Reactions with Proteins and Enzymes: Reactions of Inorganic Radical-Anions with Amino Acids" Radiat. Res., 49, 278-289.

Adams,G.E., Bisby,R.H., Cundall,R.B., Redpath,J.L. and Willson,R.L. (1972) "Selective Free Radical Reactions with Proteins and Enzymes: The Inactivation of Ribonuclease" Radiat. Res., 49, 290-299.

Willson, R.L. (1972) "Reaction of Triacetoneamine-N-oxyl with Hydroxyl Radicals" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 21 401-403.

Adams,G.E., and Willson,R.L. (1972) "On the Mechanism of BUdR Sensitisation: a Pulse Radiolysis Study of One Electron Transfer in Nucleic Acid Derivatives" Int.J. Radiat.Biol., 22, 589-597.

Adams,G.E., Willson,R.L. (1973) "Electron Transport in Irradiated Model Chemical and Biological Systems" Proc.4th Int. Cong. of Radiat.Res., Gordon and Breach. 199-215.

Redpath,J.L., and Willson,R.L. (1973). "Reducing Compounds in Radioprotection and Radiosensitisation: Model Experiments Using Ascorbic Acid" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 23, 51-65.

Adams,G.E., and Willson,R.L. (1973). �Ketyl Radicals in Aqueous Solutions: A Pulse Radiolysis Study" J.Chem.Soc.Faraday Trans. I. 69 719-729.

Foster,J.L., and Willson,R.L. (1973) �Radiosensitisation of Anoxic Cells by Metronidazole" Brit.J.Radiology, 46, 234. Patel,K.B., and Willson,R.L. (1973) "Semiquinone Free Radicals and Oxygen: a Pulse Radiolysis Study of One Electron Transfer Equilibria" J.Chem.Soc. Faraday Trans. I. 69 814-825.

Willson,R.L. (1973) "Free Radical Chain Oxidation by Carbon Tetrachloride and Related Compounds: Model Pulse Radiolysis Studies" Trans. Biochem. Soc. 1. 929-931.

Asquith,J.C., Foster,J.L., Willson,R.L., Ings,R.M.J., and McFadzean,J.A. (1974) "Metronidazole (Flagyl): A Radiosensitiser of hypoxic cells" Brit.J.Radiol., 47, 474-481.

Willson,R.L. (1974) "Acute Drug Administration and Cancer Control" Lancet, 810-811.

Willson,R.L. (1974) "Electron Transfer Reactions studied by Pulse Radiolysis" Biochem.Soc.Trans. 1082-1084.

Willson,R.L., Gilbert,B.C., Marshall,P.D.R., and Norman,R.O.C. (1974) "Metronidazole (Flagyl): A Pulse Radiolysis and e.s.r. study" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 26, 427-434.

Willson,R.L., Wardman,P., and Asmus,K.D. (1974) "Interaction of a dGMP Radical with Cysteamine and Promethazine as possible model of DNA repair" Nature, 252, 323-324.

Willson,R.L., Cramp,W.A., and Ings,R.M.J. (1974) "Metronidazole (Flagyl): Mechanisms of radiosensitisation" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 26. 557-569.

Willson,R.L., and Slater,T.F. (1975) "Carbon Tetrachloride and Biological Damage: Pulse Radiolysis Studies of associated Free Radical Reactions" in 'Fast processes in radiation, chemistry and biology' Eds. Adams, Fielden & Michael. The Institute of Physics. John Wiley & Sons. 147-161

Haysom,H.R., Phillips,J.M. Richards,J.T., Scholes,G., and Willson,R.L. (1975) "Pulse radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Dihydropyrimidines: the role of Carbonium Ions. ibid 241-246.

Redpath,J.L., and Willson,R.L. (1975) 'Chain reactions and radio sensitization: model enzyme studies" Int.J.Radiat.Biol. 27 389-398.

Willson,R.L., and Searle,A.J.F. (1975) "Metronidazole (Flagyl): iron catalysed reaction with sulphydryl groups and tumour radiosensitisation" Nature 255, 498- 500.

Eakins,M.N., Conroy,P.J., Searle,A.J., Slater,T.F., and Willson,R.L. (1976) "Metronidazole (Flagyl), a radiosensitiser of possible clinical use in cancer therapy: some biochemical and pharmacological considerations" Biochem.Pharmacol., 25, 1151-1156.

Foster,J.L., and Willson,R.L., (1976) "Metronidazole (Flagyl) in cancer radiotherapy" Chemother., 7, 215-222. Willson,R.L. (1976) "Electrophilic free radicals and nucleic acid damage: pulse radiolysis studies" Panminerva Medica, 18, 391-402.

Foster,J.L., Conroy,P.J., Searle,A.J., and Willson,R.L. (1976) "Metronidazole (Flagyl): Characterization as a cytoxic drug specific for hypoxic tumour cells" Br.J.Cancer, 33, 485-489.

Asmus,K-D.7 Nigam,S., and Willson,R.L. (1976) "Kinetics of Nitroxyl Radical Reactions: A Pulse Radiolysis Conductivity Study" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 29, 211-219.

Searle,A.J.F., and Willson,R.L. (1976) 'Metronidazole (Flagyl): Degradation by the intestinal flora" Xenobiotica. 6. 457-464.

Willson,R.L. (1976) "Metronidazole & Iron in Cancer Therapy" Lancet. 304.

Willson,R.L. and Foster,J.L. (1976). "Radiosensitization of Tumour Cells" New England Journal of Medicine, 295, 731.

Nigam,S., Asmus,K-D., and Willson,R.L. (1976) "Electron transfer and addition reactions of free nitroxyl radicals with radiation induced radicals" J.Chem.Soc., Faraday Trans., 1, 72, 2324-2340.

Willson,R.L. (1976) "Metronidazole and tissue Zinc/iron ratio in cancer therapy" Lancet, 1407.

Willson,R.L. (1977) "Free radicals and electron transfer in biology and medicine" Chemistry and Industry. 183-193.

Willson,R.L. (1977) "Metronidazole (Flagyl) in Cancer Radiotherapy: A Historical Introduction" Metronidazole: Excerpta Medica. 147-175.

Willson,R.L. (1977) "Iron, Zinc, Free Radicals and Oxygen in Tissue Disorders and Cancer Control" Ciba Foundation, Symp.51. Iron Metabolism. Elsevier/Excerpta Medica North Holland. 331-354.

Willson,R.L. (1977) "Zinc: A radical approach to disease" New Scientist. 558-560.

Bahnemann,D., Basaga,H., Dunlop,J.R., Searle,A.J.F. and Willson,R.L. (1978). "Metronidazole (Flagyl), Misonidazole (Ro-0582), Iron Zinc and Sulphur Compounds in Cancer Therapy" Bt.J.Cancer 37, Suppl. III, 16-19.

Basaga,S H., Dunlop,J.R., Searle,A.J.F., and Willson,R.L. (1978) "Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Misonidazole (Ro-0582): reduction by facultative anaerobes and cytotoxic action on hypoxic bacteria and mammalian cells in vivo" Br.J.Cancer 37. Supp 1.III. 132-135.

Willson,R.L. (1978) "Free Radicals and tissue damage" Mechanistic Evidence from Radiation Studies" in Biochemical Mechanisms of Liver Injury, ed. T.F.Slater, Academic Press. Inc., London. 123-224.

Packer,J.E., Slater,T.F., and Willson,R.L. (1978) "Reactions of the CCl4-related peroxy free radical with amino acids: pulse radiolysis evidence" Life Sciences, 23, 2617-2620.

Packer,J.E., Slater,T.F., and Willson,R.L. (1979) "Direct observations of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C" Nature 278, 737-738.

Asmus,K.-D., Bahnemann,D., Monig,J., Searle,A., and Willson,R.L. (1979) "Electrophilic free radicals and phenothiazines: a pulse radiolysis study" in 'Studies in physical and theoretical chemistry' 6, eds. H.E.Edwards, S.Navaratnam, B.J.Parsons and G.O.Phillips. Elsevier, 39-47.

Willson,R.L. (1979) "Hydroxyl radicals and biological damage in vitro: what relevance in vivo?" in 'Oxygen free radicals and tissue damage', Ciba Foundation Series 65, Excerpta Medica, 19-42.

Goldstein,B.D., Searle,A.J., and Willson,R.L. (1980) "The susceptibility of red cell acetycholinesterase to radiation-induced free radicals" Archives of Biochem. & Biophys. 201, 235-240.

Searle,A.J. and Willson,R.L. (1980) "Glutathione peroxidase: effect of superoxide, hydroxyl and bromine free radicals on enzyme activity" Int.J.Radiat.Biol., 37, 213-217.

Mahood,J.S., Packer,J.E., Searle,A.J.F.,

Willson,R.L., and Wolfenden,B.S. (1980) "Chlorpromazine, vitamin C, vitamin E and catecholamines: direct observations of free radical interactions" in 'Phenothiazines and structurally related drugs: basic and clinical studies' eds. Usdin, Eckert & Forrest. Elsevier. 100-106.

Bahnemann,D., Asmus,K.-D., and Willson,R.L. (1980) "Free radicals and the anti-inflammatory action of the phenothiazine metiazinic acid (soripal)" in 'Phenothiazines and structurally related drugs: basic and clinical studies' eds. Usdin, Eckert & Forrest. Elsevier. 99-102.

Packer,J.E., Willson,R.L., Bahnemann,D., and Asmus,K.-D. (1980) "Electron transfer reactions of halogenated aliphatic peroxyl radicals: measurement of absolute rate constants by pulse radiolysis. J.Chem.Soc., Perkin II, 296-299.

Malvy,C., Paoletti,C., Searle,A.J.F., and Willson,R.L. (1980) "Lipid peroxidation in liver: hydroxy dimethyl carbazole, a new potent inhibitor" Biochem.Biophys.Res.Comm. 95, 734-737.

Bannister, J.V., Bannister,W.H., Hill, H.A.0., Mahood,J.F., Willson,R.L. and Wolfenden,B.S. (1980) Does caeruloplasmin dismute superoxide? No. FEBS. Letters, 118, 127-129.

Slater, T.F., Ahmed, M., Benedetto, C., Cheeseman,K., Packer,J.E. and Willson, R.L. (1980). Electron transfer reactions in endoplasmic reticulum: free radical production, lipid peroxidation, covalent binding and cell division. Int.J. Quantum Chem., Quantum Biol. Symp.7. pp.347-356.

Mahood,J.S. and Willson, R.L. (1980) Failure to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) with metronidazole. Toxicol. Letts. 8, 359-361.

Willson, R.L., (1981) Free radicals, oxygen and radiosensitising drugs: a very brief introduction. in: 'Oxygen and Oxy-Radicals in Chemistry and Biology' (M.A.J.Rogers and E.L.Powers, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp.309-320.

Packer,J.E., Mahood,J.S., Mora-Arellano,V.O., Slater,T.F., Willson,R.L. and Wolfenden,B.S. (1981) Free radicals and singlet oxygen scavengers: reaction of a peroxy radical with -carotene, diphenyl furan and 1,4-diazobicyclo (2,2,2)-octane. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Comm., 98, 901-906.

Packer,J.E., Mahood,J.S., Willson,R.L. and Wolfenden, B.S. (1981) Reactions of the trichloromethylperoxy free radical (Cl3COO.) Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 39, 135-141.

Mahood,J.S. and Willson,R.L. (1981) Cytotoxicity of metronidazole (Flagyl) and misonidazole (Ro-07-0582): enhancement by lactate. Br.J.Cancer, 43, 350-354.

Bahnemann,D., Asmus, K-D. and Willson,R.L. (1981) Free radical reactions of the phenothiazine, metiazinic acid. J.Chem.Soc. Perkin II, 890-895.

Iron and hydroxyl free radicals in enzyme inactivation and cancer. In: 'Free radicals, lipid peroxidation and cancer', (D.C.H.McBrien and T.F.Slater, eds.). Academic Press, London, pp.275-303.

Willson, R.L. (1982), Iron and hydroxyl free radicals in enzyme inactivation and cancer. In 'Free radicals, lipid peroxidation and cancer', (D.C.H.McBrien and T.F.Slater, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp.275-303.

Dunlop,J.R., Mahood,J.S. and Willson,R.L. (1982) Metronidazole and misonidazole: absence of cytogenetic effects in a euoxic bacterial and a mammalian cell system in vitro. In: 'Nitroimidazoles, Chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Application' (A.Breccia, B.Cavallieri and G.E.Adams, eds.), Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series, A42, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 171-179.

Mahood,J.S. and Willson, R.L. (1982) Metronidazole and misonidazole in cancer chemotherapy: effect of cell density on drug activity. In: 'Nitroimidazoles, Chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Application' (A. Breccia, B. Cavallieri and G.E. Adams, eds.), Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series, A42, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 83-89.

Mahood, J.S. and Willson, R.L. (1982) Metronidazole (Flagyl), lactate and ethanol: enhancement of cytotoxic action and effect of a dehydrogenase inhibitor and a drug metabolite. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys., 8, 733-736.

Wolfenden,B.S. and Willson,R.L. (1982) Radical-cations as reference chromogens in kinetic studies of one-electron transfer reactions. Pulse radiolysis studies of 2,2' azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate). J.Chem.Soc. Perkin II, 805-812.

Forni,L.G., Monig,J., Mora-Arellano,V.O. and Willson,R.L.(1983) Thiyl free radicals: direct observations of electron transfer reactions with phenothiazines and ascorbate. J.Chem.Soc. Perkin II, 961-965.

Monig,J., Asmus,K-D., Schaeffer,M., Slater,T.F., and Willson,R.L. (1983) Electron transfer reactions of halothane peroxy-free radicals, CF3CHC102: measurement of absolute rate constants by pulse radiolysis. J.Chem.Soc. Perkin II, 1133-1137.

Forni,L.G. and Willson,R.L. (1983) Vitamin C and consecutive hydrogen atom and electron transfer reactions in free radical protection: a novel catalytic role for glutathione. In: 'Protective agents in cancer', (D.C.H. McBrien and T.F.Slater, eds.). Academic Press. London/New York. pp.159-173.

Forni,L.G., Packer,J.E., Slater,T.F. and Willson,R.L. (1983) Reaction of the trichloromethyl and halothane-derived peroxy radicals with unsaturated fatty acids: a pulse radiolysis study. Chem.Biol. Interactions. 45. 171-177.

Willson,R.L.(1983) Free radical protection: why vitamin E, not vitamin C, carotene or glutathione. in 'Biology of Vitamin E', Ciba Foundation Symposium lOl, ed. R. Porter and J. Whelan, Pitman, London, p.19-44.

Willson,R.L. (1983) Free radical repair mechanisms and the interactions of glutathione and vitamins C and E. In: 'Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens' ed. O.F. Nygaard and M.Simic, Academic Press, New York. p.1-22.

Bahnemann,D., Asmus,K-D. and Willson,R.L. (1983) Free radical induced one-electron oxidation of the phenothiazines, chlorpromazine and promethazine. J.Chem.Soc. Perkin II. 1661-1668.

Bahnemann,D., Asmus,K-D. and Willson, R.L. (1983) Phenothiazine radical-cations: electron transfer equilibria with iodide ions and the determination of one-electron redox potentials by pulse radiolysis. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin II. 1669-1673.

Hiller, K.O., and Willson, R.L. (1983) Hydroxyl free radicals and anti-inflammatory drugs: biological inactivation studies and reaction rate constants. Biochemical Pharmacology, 32, 2109-2111, 1983.

Mahood,J.S. and Willson, R.L. (1983) Metronidazole (Flagyl): lack of induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in CHO-Kl cells. Mutation Research, l22, 187-192.

Hiller, K.-O. Hodd, P.L. and Willson, R.L. (1983). Antiinflammatory drugs: protection of a bacterial virus as an in vitro biological measure of free radical activity. Chem.-Biol. Interactions, 47, 293-305.

Hiller, K.-O Hodd,P.L. and Willson, R.L. (1983) Antiinflammatory drags: protection of a bacterial virus as an in vitro biological measure of free radical activity. Chem.-Biol. Interactions, 47, 293-305

Searle,A.J.F. and Willson,R.L. (1983) Stimulation of lipid peroxidation by iron and cysteine: Characterisation and the role of free radicals. Biochemical J. 212, 549-554.

Packer,J.E. and Willson,R.L. (1983) Does nitrogen elimination follow one-electron reduction of diazo-fluorene? A radiation chemical study. Chem.Comm. 733-734.

Packer,J.E. and Willson,R.L. (1984) Oxidation and Reduction of Diazofluorene. A pulse-radiolysis Study. J.Chem.Soc.Perkin Trans. II. 1415-1419

Willson,R.L. (1984) Ill-placed iron, oxygen free radicals and disease: some recent and not so recent radiation studies. in 'Oxygen free radicals and disease' (J.V.Bannister & W.H. Bannister eds.) Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, Oxford. 26, 238-258.

Willson,R.L. (1984) Peroxy Free Radicals and Enzyme Inactivation In Radiation Injury and Oxygen Toxicity: Protection By Superoxide Dismutase And Antioxidants? The Lancet, p.804.

Kittridge,K.J. and Willson,R.L. (1984) Uric acid substantially enhances the free radical-induced inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase. FEBS Letters 170 162-164

Forni,L.G. and Willson,R.L. (1984) Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions: Determination of Free Radical Redox Potentials by Pulse Radiolysis. Methods in Enzymology, Vol.105. p.179-188.

Taylor,J.J. Willson,R.L. and Kendall-Taylor.P.(1984) Evidence for direct interactions between methimazole and free radicals. FEBS Letters 176 337-340

Searle,A.J.F. Gee,C. and Willson,R.L. (1984) Ellipticines and Carbazoles As Antioxidants. 'Oxygen Radicals in Chemistry and Biology'. Pub.Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.pp 377-381

Gee,C.A. Kittridge,K.J., and Willson,R.L. (1985) Peroxy free radicals, enzymes and radiation damage: sensitisation by oxygen and protection by superoxide dismutase and antioxidants. Br.J.of Radiol. 58, 25l-256.

Milia,A. Cheeseman,K.H. Forni,L. Willson,R.L. Corongiu,P. and Slater,T.F. (1985) The Effects of -Tocopherol and Water-soluble analogues on Liver Microsomal Lipid Peroxidation. Biochem.Pharmacol. 34, 437-38.

Willson,R.L. (1985) Organic Peroxy Free Radicals as Ultimate Agents in Oxygen Toxicity. 'Oxidative Stress' Publishers Academic Press Inc. (London) pp.41-72.

Willson,R.L., Dunster,CA, Forni, L G, Gee, C A and Kittridge, K J (1985) Organic free radicals and proteins in biochemical injury: electron- or hydrogen- transfer reactions? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B311, 545-563.

Forni, L G, Mora-Arellano, V 0, Packer, J E and Willson, R L (1986) Nitrogen Dioxide and Related Free Radicals: Electron-transfer Reactions with Organic Compounds in Solutions containing Nitrite or Nitrate. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans II. 1-5.

Forni, L G and Willson, R L (1986) Thiyl and Phenoxyl Free Radicals and NADH: Direct observation of one-electron oxidation Biochem. J. 240 897-903

Forni, LG and Willson, R L (1986) Thiyl Free Radicals and the Oxidation of Ferrocytochrome c: Direct observation of coupled hydrogen atom and electron transfer reactions Biochem. J. 240 905-907

Willson R.L. (1987) Vitamin, selenium, zinc and copper interactions in free radical protection against ill-placed iron. J. Nutrition Soc. 46, 27-34.

Willson R.L. (1987) Free radical biochemistry, radiation injury and Brunel: Introduction to the 13th L H Gray Conference, 1986. Br. J. Cancer 55, Supp. VIII, 1-4.

Davies M.J.,Donkor R.,Dunster C.A.,Gee C.A.,Jonas S. & Willson R.L.(1987) Desferrioxamine (Desferal) and superoxide free radicals: Formation of an enzyme-damaging nitroxide. Biochem. J. 246, 725-729.

Monig J., Asmus K-D., Forni L.G. & Willson R.L. (1987) On the reaction of molecular oxygen with thiyl radicals: a re-examination. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 52 589-602.

Willson R.L. (1987) Free radical injury: on the role of oxygen, iron and antioxidants. 'Microcirculation - an update' Vol I. (M. Tsuchiya et al. eds.) Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division) pp.647-650

Griffiths H.R., Lunec J., Gee C.A. & Willson R.L. (1988) Oxygen radical induced alterations in polyclonal IgG. FEBS Letters 230. 155-158

Fitchett M., Gilbert, B.C. & Willson R.L. (1988) Fragmentation Reactions of Radicals formed from Sugar Phosphates and the Hydroxyl Radical: an Investigation by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy and Pulse Radiolysis. J. Chem Soc. Perkin Trans. II 673-689.

Willson R.L. (1988) Organic Peroxy Free Radicals and the role of Superoxide Dismutase and Antioxidants, in: Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. (A. Quintanilha, ed.) Plenum Press, New York. pp.81-84.

Willson R.L. (1988) SOD and free radical elixirs: a case for caution. Chemist and Druggist 438-439

Forni L.G. Mora-Arellano, V.O., Packer, J.E. and Willson, R.L. (1988) Aminopyrine and Antipyrine Free Radical-cations: Pulse Radiolysis Studies of One-electron Transfer Reactions. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans II 1579-1584

Jonas S, Willson, R.L. and Riley, P.A. (1988) Cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide in vitro estimated by a delayed thymidine incorporation assay. in Free Radicals, Methodology and Concepts ed C. Rice-Evans and B. Halliwell, Richelieu Press, London pp 499-512

Willson, R.L. (1988) Zinc and Iron in Free Radical Pathology and Cellular Control. in Zinc in Human Biology ed C.F. Mills, Springer-Verlag, London, Berlin, pp 147-172

Davies M.J., Forni L.G. & Willson R.L. (1988) Vitamin E Analogue Trolox C: ESR and Pulse Radiolysis studies of free radical reactions. Biochem J. 225 513-522

Davies,M.J., Forni,L.G. & Willson,R.L. (1988) Vitamin E Analogue Trolox C: ESR and Pulse Radiolysis studies of free radical reactions. Biochem J. 225 513-522

Willson R.L (1988) From Nitric oxide to Desferal: Nitrogen Free Radicals and Iron in Oxidative Injury. in Oxygen Radicals in Biology and Medicine; Basic Life Sciences Vol 49 MG. Simic, K.A Taylor, J.F Ward and C von Sonntag eds. Plenum Press, New York and London pp 87-89.

Willson R.L. (1988) Free radical injury and the role of iron. Free Radicals in Digestive Diseases, M Tsuchiya et al editors. Elsevier Science 3-13

Griffiths H.R., Lunec J., Blake D.R and Willson R.L. (1988) Free radical denaturation of immunoglobulin G is due to amino acid oxidation: implications for rheumatoid arthritis. Basic Life Sciences 49, 357-360.

Griffiths H.R., Lunec J., Jefferis R., Blake D.R. and Willson R.L. (1988) A study of the ROS induced denaturation of IgG3 using monoclonal antibodies; implications for inflammatory joint disease. Basic Life Sciences 49, 361-364.

Willson R.L. (1988) Oxygen and nitrogen free radicals: their formation and reactivity in biological systems. Diet Free Radicals and Tissue Damage, G Tomassi and F Ursini eds. CNR-IPRA, Rome p35-41.

Jonas S.K., Riley P.A. and Willson R.L. (1989) Hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity: low temperature enhancement by ascorbate or reduced lipoate. Biochem. J. 264, 651-655.

D'Aquino M, Dunster C. and Willson R.L. (1989) Vitamin A and glutathione-mediated free radical damage: competing reactions with polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin C. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 161, 1199-1203.

Willson, R.L. (1989) Iron, desferrioxamine and xanthine oxidase in free radical biochemistry. Medical, Biochemical and Chemical Aspects of Free Radicals ed. O Hayaishi, E Niki, M Kondo and T Yoshikawa, Elsevier Sciences, Amsterdam pp49-55

Pasquier C., Pierce B. and Willson R.L. (1989) Xanthine oxidase-mediated free radical injury and the protective action of thiopurinol. Medical, Biochemical and Chemical Aspects of Free Radicals eds. O Hayaishi, E Niki, M Kondo and T Yoshikawa, Elsevier Sciences Amsterdam pp425-432.

Dunster C.A. and Willson R.L (1989) Free radical reactions of muconate: a benzen metabolite. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 55, p873.

Riley P.A. and Willson R.L. (1990) Leukaemia incidence at Sellafield. British Medical Journal. 300 pp 676

Dunster C and Willson R.L. (1990) Thiyl free radicals: electron transfer, addition or hydrogen abstraction reactions in chemistry and biology, and the catalytic role of sulphur compounds. Sulfur-centered Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology. Plenum Press, pp377-387.

Willson R.L. (1990) Quinones, semiquinone free radicals and one-electron transfer reactions: a walk in the literature from Peru to S.O.D. Free Rad Res Comm. 8 201-217

Riley, P.A., Willson R.L. (1992) Trevor Frank Slater (1931-1992) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 13, 275-297

Yamamoto Yuichi, Yamamoto Yorihiro, Nike E, Gee C.A. and Willson R.L.(1992) Antioxidant activity of 6-hydroxy-1, 4-dimethylcarbazole. J.Jpn.Oil. Chem.Soc. 41, No. 8

Willson R.L. (1993) TFSlater, free radical redox chemistry and antioxidants: from NAD+ and vitamin C to CCl4 and vitamin E;, to thiols, myoglobin and vitamins A and D. Free Radicals: from basic science to medicine. eds G. Poli, E. Albano and M.U. Dianzani.

Noguchi N., Komuro E., Niki E. and Willson R.L. (1994) Action of Curcumin as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. J.Jpn.Oil Chem. Soc., 43 No. 12

D'Aquino, Willson R.L. et al (1994) Oxygen radicals in biological systems: sulfydryl free radical formation enzymatically by sonolysis, by radiolysis and thermally: vitamin A, curcumin, muconic acid and related conjugated olefins as references. Methods in Enzymology 233, Part C, 34-46.

Everett S.A., Kundu S.C., Maddix S. and Willson R.L. (1995) Mechanisms of free-radical scavenging by the nutritional antioxidant beta-carotene. Biochemical Society Transactions, 23.

Kundu S.C and Willson R.L. (1995) Thiyl (sulfhydryl/thiol) free radical reactions, vitamins, beta-caratone and SOD in oxidative stress: the design and interpretation of enzymic studies. Methods and Enzymology, 251, pp 69-81

Everett S.A., Kundu S.C. Dennis M.F and Willson R.L. (1996) Scavenging of nitrogen dioxide, thiyl and sulfonyl free radicals by the nutritional antioxidant beta-carotene. J. Biol.Chem. 271, pp 3988-3994.