Fundamental Study of Cavitation Melt Processing
Fundamental Study of Cavitation Melt Processing: Opening the Way to Treating Large Volumes (UltraMelt)
This project is driven by the technological need to create new advanced processing technology (ultrasonic melt processing). At the same time, the research program is mostly fundamental and is aimed at the development of new knowledge on the interaction of the cavitation zone and generated flows with the treated stationary and moving volume. The topic of this research is very relevant to industry and challenging both in experimental and modelling parts. This project paves the way to the industrial application of a promising method that up to now has been only tested on laboratory scale. This new technology offers environmentally friendly and economically efficient way to liquid metals processing replacing or complementing the conventional technologies.
The unique feature of the project is a combination of state-of-the-art dedicated experiments performed on transparent and metallic liquids and multi-physics, multi-scale modelling. The model tackles the cavitation development in liuqids, distribution of acoustic pressure, and interaction between the cavitation region, secondary flows and the processed stationary and moving volume.
Ultrasonic cavitation treatment offers sustainable, economical and pollution-free solutions to melt processing of conventional and advanced metallic materials with resulting significant improvement of quality and properties. However, the transfer of this advanced and promising technology to industry has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal as required by processes such as continuous casting.
The results of this project will enable much awaited industrial application of environmentally friendly ultrasonic melt processing to degassing and structure modification of modern and advanced light-alloy materials and their composites for modern, driven by sustainability and environment, applications.
Furthermore, the developed new knowledge and models can be used for the development of light-metal composite materials and applied to other physical means of melt processing (e.g. electro-magnetic vibrations), which is outside the scope of this current project. In addition, the obtained knowledge and models can be used in other research and industrial fields where cavitation is induced in a physico-chemical system. Examples of such systems can be found in pharmaceutical, biotechnological, chemical, and food industries.
The results of the research were actively disseminated in the academic and technological communities through international and national conferences and seminars; publications in peer-reviewed journals; and through existing academic and industrial networks of the applying research centres.
The project generated the following main outcomes:
- A novel method of measuring acoustic emissions and evaluating acoustic pressure in liquid metals
- A new multi-scale model of cavitation in bulk liquid volumes, enabling the assessment of cavitation intensity, acoustic streaming and pressure distribution.
- Experimental data that can be used for model validation and understanding the mechanisms of ultrasonic liquid processing.
The results are disseminated through the following publications and presentations:
Peer Reviewed Journals
- Tzanakis I, Xu WW, Eskin DG, Lee P, Kotsovinos N. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2015, vol. 27, pp. 72–80.
- Tzanakis I, Xu WW, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K, Lee PD. In situ synchrotron radiography and spectrum analysis of transient cavitation bubbles in molten aluminium alloy, Physics Procedia, 2015, vol. 70, pp. 841–845.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K. Effect of input power and temperature on the cavitation intensity during the ultrasonic treatment of molten aluminium, Trans. Indian Institute of Metals, 2015, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1023-1026.
- Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Pericleous K, Eskin DG. Dynamics of two interacting hydrogen bubbles in liquid aluminum under the influence of a strong acoustic field, Physical Review E, 2015, vol. 92, 043004-1–043004-8.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB,Eskin DG, Pericleous K. Characterisation of the ultrasonic acoustic spectrum and pressure field in aluminium melt with an advanced cavitometer, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2016, vol. 229, pp. 582–586.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB,Eskin DG, Pericleous K. Investigation of the factors influencing cavitation intensity during the ultrasonic treatment of molten aluminium, Materials & Design, 2016, vol. 90, pp. 979–983.
- Xu WW, Tzanakis I, SrirangamP, Mirihanage WU, Eskin DG, Bodey AJ, Lee PD. Synchrotron quantification of ultrasound cavitation and bubble dynamics in Al-10Cu melts, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2016, vol. 31, pp. 355–361.
- Tzanakis I, Hodnett M, Lebon GSB, Dezhkunov N, Eskin DG. Calibration and performance assessment of an innovative high-temperature cavitometer, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2016, vol. 240, pp.57–69.
- Lebon GSB, Pericleous K, Tzanakis I,Eskin D. A model of cavitation for the treatment of a moving liquid metal volume, Intern. J. Cast Metals Res., 2016, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 324–330.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB,Eskin D, Pericleous K. Characterizing the cavitation development and spectrum in various liquids using an advanced cavitometer, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2017, vol. 34 (Jan), pp. 651–662
- Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Djambazov G, Pericleous K, Eskin DG. Numerical modelling of ultrasonic waves in a bubbly Newtonian liquid using a high-order acoustic cavitation model, Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 37, July 2017, pp. 660–668.
- Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Pericleous K, Eskin D. Experimental and numerical investigation of acoustic pressures in different liquids, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2018, vol. 42, April 2018, pp. 411-421.
Peer Reviewed Conferences
- Lebon GSB, Pericleous K, Tzanakis I, Eskin D. Application of the “Full Cavitation Model” to the fundamental study of cavitation in liquid metal processing. Intern. Symp. of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014), IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2015, vol. 72, paper 052050.
- Xu WW, Tzanakis I, Srirangam P, Terzi S, Mirihanage WU, Eskin DG, Mathiesen RH, Horsfield AP, Lee PD. In situ synchrotron radiography of ultrasound cavitation in a molten Al–10 Cu alloy. TMS Supplemental Proc., Symp. Advances in Solidification of Metallic Alloys under External Fields, ed. J. Mi, D.G. Eskin, Hoboken: Wiley, 2015, pp. 61–66.
- Lebon, GSB, Pericleous K., Tzanakis I, Eskin D. A model of cavitation for the treatment of a moving liquid metal volume, Proc. Advances in the Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, An MPND Symp. Honouring D.M. Stefanescu, ed. L. Nastac et al., Hoboken: Wiley, 2015, pp. 23–30.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K. Comparison of cavitation intensity in water and in molten aluminium using a high-temperature cavitometer, The 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015), J. Physics, 2015, vol. 656, paper 012120.
- Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Pericleous KA, Eskin DG, Comparison between low-order and high-order acoustic pressure solvers for bubbly media computations, The 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015), J. Physics, 2015, vol. 656, paper 012134.
- Tzanakis I, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K, Optimization of the ultrasonic processing in a melt flow, Light Metals 2016, Ed. E. Williams, Hoboken: Wiley, pp. 833–836.
- Tzanakis I, Hodnett M, Lebon GSB, Eskin DG, Pericleous K, Fundamental studies on cavitation melt processing, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, vol. 129, paper 012068.
- Lebon GSB, Tzanakis I, Pericleous K, Eskin D. A High-order acoustic cavitation model for the treatment of a moving liquid metal volume, CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing, Edited by: L. Nastac et al., Warrendale: TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2016, pp. 135-142.
- Eskin DG, Tzanakis I, Wang F, Lebon GSB, Pericleous K, Lee PD, Connolley T, Mi J. Fundamental Studies of Ultrasonic Melt Processing
- Proc. 6th Decennial International Conference on Solidification Processing, Ed. Z. Fan. London: BCAST, 2017, pp. 546–549.