PHYONA – phytomining of nanoparticles
Anthropogenic activities such as mining, industrial processes, transports and urban developments create a vast quantity of residual metals that concentrate in the soils surrounding the activities and persist in these soils for centuries creating a continuous hazard and limiting the sustainable use of land for food production and other uses.
This project proposes to create ad hoc plant systems able to collect (“mine”) the metals from the soils, transpose them to their aerial parts and consequently being collected through simple harvesting. The harvested biomass enriched with metal can then be treated (extraction) in a low energy process including recyclable solvents for the generation of clean lignin/cellulose and an enriched metal solution. The solution can be then used for the manufacturing of nano-metals (nano-synthesis) while recovering the solvents for re-use in the extracting step.
The project is focussed on the development and the optimisation of the three steps: mining; extracting and manufacturing.
In order to create the mining plant consortium, multi-selectivity, yield and capabilities of an assemblage of hyperaccumulators need to be studied. To do so, in situ and laboratory experiments are carried out. The experiments are based on the evaluation of the capacity of hyperaccumulators to work on a variety of soils and metal mixture and concentration. For this purpose soils with specific metal concentrations similar to existing mining environments have been devised, but also in situ sowing in gardens through voluntary participation in the projects is used. For this second method of approach to metal collections, the participants send the soils that undergo analysis in our laboratory hence generating a map of metals distribution in the UK with the parallel creating of pollution sources (such as links to transport hubs or industrial facilities), this method would then develop an innovative aim of working on urban contamination and potential urban mining.
The extraction step is being studied in a laboratory with the view of using the least hazardous solvents, the smallest volume and concentration. Two different approaches are under study to produce a fast collective extraction with the aim of separating the metals at a later stage. This steps also contains the development of an in situ solution for the performance of this process directly at the contaminated site.
Finally, the nano-synthesis stage is developed to maximise the use of the “mining” biomass and achieve an optimised green route to manufacturing. This fully enters in a circular procedure that makes use of the biomass for both the mining and the manufacturing finally resulting in the production of nanometals, clean solvents that can be re-used in the extraction step and clean lignin/cellulose.
Meet the Principal Investigator(s) for the project
Dr Lorna Anguilano
Lorna Anguilano is a material scientist and archaeometallurgist. She is currently developing the X-ray diffraction facility at ETC, providing consultancy in material characterisation and failure’s diagnosis as well as actively generating and developing researches in archaeometry and modern materials characterisation and development. Her research involves reconstruction of ferrous and non-ferrous metal production from different areas and periods, and makes use of chemical, metallographic and mineralogical techniques such as XRF, OM, SEM-EDS and XRD. Joining ETCbrunel in 2008 Lorna’s first focussed in the establishment of the XRD facility and material characterisation’s consultancy. Later on Lorna started working parallel on her archaeometric research
starting a series of projects of early iron production in Ireland with Connaught Archaeology. At the moment she is developing projects on Medieval non-ferrous production in Central and South of Italy and in mining industrial archaeology in Queensland and South Wales (Australia). Lorna also participates and leads modern material characterisation within Brunel based as well as international research teams, her contribution to these researches includes in situ
phase transition shape memory alloys characterisation and DLC coating crystalline characterisation. Selected Publications
- - Anguilano, L. La Salvia, V. Serlorenzi, M. SILVERING TECHNIQUES IN THE ADRIAN ATHENAEUM Surface Engineering,Special Issue, in press. Anguilano, L. La Salvia, V. Serlorenzi, M. Antonelli, S. Tornese, M. Iacone, A. and Prosperi, S. The metallurgical workshop of Piazza Madonna di Loreto (Rome). International Symposium of Archaeometry 2012 Proceedings, in press. Anguilano, L. Timberlake, S. Rehren, Th. Excavation, slag analysis and experimental reconstruction of an Early Medieval lead smelting bole from Banc Tynddol, Cwmystwyth, Ceredigion (Wales UK) Historical Metallurgy Society Journal, volume 44, part 2, 2010 Anguilano, L. Chemical and Mineralogical analysis of slags from Lowpark, Appendix VIIIb IN: Of Troughs and Tuyeres. The archaeology of the N5 Charlestown Bypass. NRA scheme monographs 6 – 2010. Eds. Gillespie and Kerrigan Wallace, A. Anguilano, L.Iron smelting and smithing: new evidence emerging on Irish Road Schemes IN: Creative Minds: production, manufacturing and invention in ancient Ireland. 2010 Eds. M. Stanley, E. Danher and J. Eogan.