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Synthesis and Modelling of Robust Processes for Desalination of Shale-gas Produced Water

Shale gas extraction via hydraulic fracking is a technique in which gas is extracted from the shale layers of rock under the ground. One of the key challenges associated with fracking, however, is the large quantity of contaminated produced water generated during the production lifespan of the shale-gas wells. The UK has recently re-activated its plan to explore shale-gas potentials in the country as stated by the government: “We are encouraging safe and environmentally sound exploration to determine this potential”. Therefore, there is a new wave of national interests in the exploration and extraction of shale-gas in the UK with a potential of 0.57 tcm estimated to be technically recoverable. One of the major forthcoming challenges facing the shale gas production industry is the management of large amounts of wastewater (known as produced water (PW)) generated throughout the well’s lifetime. Treatment of this wastewater is increasingly becoming an attractive alternative to both re-use and deep-well disposal, owing to more stringent regulations in the UK/EU compared to the USA and also with regards to the rising global fresh water scarcity due to climate change. The main treatment challenge; however, is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the highly saline PW. Although there exists a number of individual treatment methods, there has been little work on the synthesis of intensified hybrid treatment processes for TDS reduction in shale gas PW - aiming to maximise process efficiency via minimising energy consumption and waste generation as well as the capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating expenditures (OPEX), while maximising the rate of production i.e. desalinated water. In this modelling- and simulation-based project, you would aim to take advantage of the inherent geothermal energy of the shale-gas PW and synthesise intensified treatment processes comprising inherently energy-intensive but promising technologies of forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) for the optimum removal of TDS from shale-gas produced water under various operating scenarios and various PW concentration and production rates. You will be using advanced modelling and simulation software including gPROMS, Aspen Suite and Matlab to develop and optimise these processes. Your research is expected to develop a surrogate model founded on first-principle modelling of individual process units to identify the optimum process design and operating conditions for the desalination of shale-gas produced water while taking advantage of the geothermal energy of such waste stream. 

How to apply

If you are interested in applying for the above PhD topic please follow the steps below:

  1. Contact the supervisor by email or phone to discuss your interest and find out if you woold be suitable. Supervisor details can be found on this topic page. The supervisor will guide you in developing the topic-specific research proposal, which will form part of your application.
  2. Click on the 'Apply here' button on this page and you will be taken to the relevant PhD course page, where you can apply using an online application.
  3. Complete the online application indicating your selected supervisor and include the research proposal for the topic you have selected.

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This is a self funded topic

Brunel offers a number of funding options to research students that help cover the cost of their tuition fees, contribute to living expenses or both. See more information here: https://www.brunel.ac.uk/research/Research-degrees/Research-degree-funding. The UK Government is also offering Doctoral Student Loans for eligible students, and there is some funding available through the Research Councils. Many of our international students benefit from funding provided by their governments or employers. Brunel alumni enjoy tuition fee discounts of 15%.

Meet the Supervisor(s)

Salman Masoudi Soltani - I am a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor in the US system) in Chemical Engineering. In May 2017, I joined Brunel University London as a founding member of the new Chemical Engineering Department, on the team in charge of the design and development of the Programme. I did my BSc (2005), MSc (2008) and PhD (2014; University of Nottingham) in Chemical Engineering. I am a Chartered Engineer (CEng/MIChemE) with both industrial and academic research backgrounds in chemical and process engineering. I am also a Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA), UK, and the Postgraduate Research Director with the Department of Chemical Engineering.  My research area is mainly centred on Separation Processes and Reaction Engineering (with a focus on adsorption processes), and Process Modelling & Design. I am currently leading a number of major research projects on and around carbon capture and hydrogen production, funded via Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre (UKCCSRC), and the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS), along with a number of industrial consultancy projects, the details of which have been included under the "Research" tab of this profile. Before joining Brunel University London, I worked as a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Department of Chemical Engineering (Clean Fossil & Bioenergy Research Group) at Imperial College London, UK (07/2015 – 05/2017), contributing to several EPSRC as well as EU- and OECD-consultancy projects (Opening New Fuels for UK Generation; Gas-FACTS; CO2QUEST) in the realms of biomass combustion and the modelling and optimisation of CO2 capture & utilisation processes - in Professor Paul Fennell's research group and in collaboration with Professor Niall Mac Dowell and Professor Nilay Shah. In March 2017, I received the prestigious endorsement as the Exceptional Talent in Chemical Engineering by the Royal Academy of Engineering, UK. Prior to this, I worked as a Postdoctoral Knowledge Transfer Partnership Research Associate with Dr Shenyi Wu (Fluids and Thermal Engineering Research Group) at the University of Nottingham, UK (08/2013 – 07/2015), during which, I was fully based at A-Gas International ltd. production site in Bristol (UK), where I worked as a Project/Process Engineer on a major joint engineering research and process design project, involving the research, front end engineering design (FEED), detailed design, and development of a bespoke industrial-scale gas separation process. I was awarded The University of Nottingham Scholarship to study for a PhD in Chemical Engineering. I conducted my research with the Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at the University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus where I studied the effects of pyrolysis conditions on the structure of porous carbonaceous adsorbents synthesised from recycled waste, and the effect of subsequent surface modification on heavy metal removal from aqueous media.