Numerical Modelling of Flutter for Aerospace Structures
The flutter of aircraft’s wings is similar with the resonance for the vibration of structures and it is a phenomena the aircraft designer needs to avoid. Flutter results from the fluid-structure interaction of air flow with deformable structures such as aircraft wings. The key factors affecting flutter are the aerodynamics, responsible for generating the lift on the wing, the dynamics of structures and the fluid-structure coupling, which allows the lift force to be passed to the wing structure. With the lift force applied on the wing, the wing will deform and, consequently, the aerodynamic shape of the wing will result in a different lifting force which in turn can induce more deformation on the wing. This process can continue for a while until flutter is achieved, which would eventually lead to the collapse of the wing. There are different approaches to solving the fluid continuum from high fidelity computational fluid dynamics approach to panel methods. From the solution of the fluid domain, the forces interacting with the solid are available, however each of these approaches have several simplifications that limit their accuracy especially in highly dynamic, turbulent or separated flow conditions. Recent advances have focused on more accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics and the coupling of the fluid dynamics with structure dynamics. From the structures side, the dynamics modelling of the wing will have to be done either with an explicit or implicit solver. Recent advances are focused on the dynamic modelling of non-isotropic materials such as composite wing structures. Focus is on assessing and optimising ply orientations for the design of the aircraft wing to increase the flutter boundary. Typical candidates will have some experience in the numerical modelling of fluid or solid domain, using for example finite element, finite difference or finite volume methods, panel methods and so on. Some experience in the modelling of composite materials, experimental methods is also desired.
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