Hua Zhao

Summary

hua-zhao

Academic Responsibilities

  • Head,  Mechanical Engineering Subject Area
  • Chairman, School Safety Committee
  • Director, Centre for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels (CAPF)
  • Former course directors for BEng/MEng Degrees in Motorsport Engineering, MSc in Automotive and Motorsport Engineering
  • Former supervisor and faculty advisor for Brunel Formula Student and Brunel Master Racing teams

Academic and Professional Qualifications

  • BEng., Tianjin University, China, 1984.
  • PhD., Leeds University, U.K., 1989.
  • FIMechE., Fellow of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2007.
  • DSc., Brunel University London, 2009.

Academic Career

  • College Research Fellow, Robinson College, Cambridge University, 1989-1992.
  • Research Fellow, Imperial College of London, 1992-1994.
  • Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Reader, Brunel University London, 1994-2001.
  • Professor, Brunel University London, 2002-now.

Responsibilities

Award

  • Recipient of 1997 Caleb Brett Award by the Institute of Energy for the best paper published on fuels or lubricants, 1998.
  • Recipient of 1998 Safety Award by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for the best paper published on the safey aspect of mechanical engineering, 1999.
  • Recipient of the 2004 PE Publishing Award by the Professional Engineering Publishing  for the best paper published at the International Journal of Engines Research, 2005.
  • SAE Certificate for Excellence in Oral Presentation at SAE 2005 Internaltional Congress.

Scholarship

  • Cheung Kang Scholars, Ministry of Education, China.
  • Outstanding Young Overseas Scholarship, NSFC, China.

Visiting Professorship

  • Visiting Professor, Tianjin University, since 2001.
  • Visiting Professor, Shangdong University, since 2005.
  • Visiting Professor, Hunan University, since 2006.
  • Honorary Professor, Zhejiang Automotive Institute, 2008.

Professional Activities

  • Deputy chairman of UnICEG, an association of university and industrial members working with IC engines
  • Committee member of Combustion Engines and Fuels Group, IMechE
  • Member of EPSRC peer review college and Panel member
  • External Examiner: City University of London, University of Bath
  • PhD Viva: UCL (2), City University of London (2), University of Nottingham (2), University of Brighton (2), University of Bath (2), University of Bradford, Queen’s University of Belfast, Lund University (2), University of Birmingham,
  • Session organiser of several SAE conferences, IMechE conference organiser

Consultancy 

  • Ricardo UK Ltd., BP, SAIC, YuChai Machinery, Petrobras, Cosworth, Greatwall Automotive, FAW, Visteon, Mechadyne International.

Research area(s)

  • Advanced gasoline engines: DI gasoline engine, CAI combustion engine, Alcohol fuelled SI/CAI engines, boosted downsized gasoline engine, 2-stroke/4-stroke switchable gasoline engine, 2-stroke SI/CAI combustion engines, high efficiency gasoline engines for hybrid applications, variable valve actuation(VVT, CPS, mechanical VVL, and camless system)
  • Advanced diesel engines: combustion chamber design and optimization, fuel injection system and spray characterization, bio-fuel diesel engine combustion and emissions, HCCI diesel combustion, low temperature diluted diesel combustion technologies
  • Hybrid powertrain: patented cost-effective air hybrid technologies for light duty and commercial vehicle applications, life-cycle analysis of electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • In-cylinder optical diagnostics: in-cylinder flow measurements by LDA and PIV; in-cylinder mixture composition and combustion species detection by LIF; simultaneous fuel vapour and liquid measurements in the DI gasoline engine and CR diesel engine by LIEF; multi-species measurement by SRS; in-cylinder soot and combustion temperature measurements by LII and high speed two-colour method; gas temperature measurements by LIF and LIP
  • Engine simulation: development and application of 1-D (GT-Power, WAVE) and 3-D engine simulation(customized KIVA3v, star-CD)

Research

Research interests

 Research Leadership

As the funding director, I am responsible for the establishment and operation of the Centre for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels (CAPF) at Brunel University London, a designated University Research Centre, which is amongst the most active in Europe researching on internal combustion engines and their fuels. Over the last 10 years, research in this area, has expanded to 5 full time members of staff engaged in the engines research. The group at any one time supports 3-5 research assistants and 15 research students. I have supervised over 20 PhD students and several postdoctoral research fellows over the last decade. Over the last several years, I have led a number of advanced research projects on both gasoline and diesel engines supported by the British Government (EPSRC, DTI, Dft), European Union, and industry (Delphi Diesels, Ford Motor Company, BP, Mahle Powertrain, Cosworth, Yuchai Machinery Group Ltd., Lotus, Shell, Jaguar Cars) with a total grant of over £5.0 million. Brunel University London is also the core member and the only Bristish University in a EU Network of Excellence in Engines (ECO-Engine). Brunel Engines Group is also involved in the Integrated Project on Car Engines (NICE) in the EU Frame VI research programme. In April 2008, a joint Brunel-Yuchai research centre was setup between Brunel and Yuchai Machinery Group, the largest diesel engine manufacturer in China, to carry out joint research in combustion engines.

As an adjunct Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Engines at Tianjin University, I have also been in charge of projects in the Chinese National Key Fundamental Research 973 Programme and the National Applied Technology 863 Programme with a total budget over 4million Yuan.

Research project(s) and grant(s)

Selection of Recent Grants

  • EPSRC Grant on Stratified EGR in SI engines (£153,920), PI, (98 –2001)
  • EPSRC Grant on Ultra Low NOx Combustion System for IC engine (£392,000),  PI,( 1999–2002)
  • Ford Motor Company on diesel combustion chamber design (£130,000), PI, (1999 – 2002)
  • EU Grant on controlled autoignition gasoline engine (€270,000), PI. (1998 –2000).
  • EPSRC Grant on Stratified Fuel Fraction Gasoline Engine (£323,597), PI, (2000-2003).
  • EC Grant on HCCI light duty diesel engine (197,000 ECU), PI, ( 2001 –2004).
  • EPSRC Grant on soot oxidation (£152,902), CI, (1998 – 2001)
  • Ford Motor company sponsored PhD studentships, (£200,000) (1995-2004)
  • Delphi Diesel Systems sponsored PhD Studentships, ( £190,000) PI, (2002-2009).
  • EPSRC Grant on “New Generation DI Gasoline Engine with CAI”, (£323,000), PI, (2003-2006).
  • DTI/EPSRC Grants on “2/4 stroke switching engines”, £190,252, PI, (2003-2007).
  • EU IP  €20Million NICE project, (€150,000), PI, (2004 –2008)
  • EU ECO-Engine Network of Excellence, (€90,000), PI, (2004-2007).
  • EPSRC Grant on Air Hybrid Engine, (£534,884), PI, (2007-2010).
  • EPSRC Grant on 2-stroke Autoignition Combustion Engines (£607,266), PI, and co-ordinator and of a £1.4 million research consortium comprising University of Manchester, Brighton University, University of Leeds, with industrial partners of Innospec and Ricardo UK., (2008-2011).


  • EPSRC Grant on novel Aftertreatment Systems, (£214,438), CI, (2009-2012).

Research centre(s)

Selected Publications

Journal articles

Zhang, Y. , Zhao, H. , Xie, H.  and He, BQ.   (2010)   'Variable-valve-actuation-enabled high-efficiency gasoline engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 224 (8).  pp. 1081 - 1095. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO1436 

Diez, A.  and Zhao, H.   (2010)   'Effect of the dwell angle of split injection in a single-cylinder optical diesel engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 224 (6).  pp. 815 - 828. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO1394 

Lee, CY. , Zhao, H.  and Ma, T.   (2010)   'A low cost air hybrid concept'. Oil and Gas Science and Technology - Revue d'IFP Energies Nouvelles, 65 (1).  pp. 19 - 26. doi: 10.2516/ogst/2009089 Download publication 

Jagus, K. , Jiang, X. , Dober, G. , Greeves, G. , et al.   (2009)   'Assessment of large-eddy simulation feasibility in modelling the unsteady diesel fuel injection and mixing in a high-speed direct-injection engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 223 (8).  pp. 1033 - 1048. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO1052 

Kalian, N. , Zhao, H.  and Yang, C.   (2009)   'Effects of spark-assistance on controlled auto-ignition combustion at different injection timings in a multicylinder direct-injection gasoline engine'. International Journal of Engine Research, 10 (3).  pp. 133 - 148. doi: 10.1243/14680874JER03209 

Kalian, N. , Zhao, H.  and Qiao, J.   (2008)   'Investigation of transition between spark ignition and controlled auto-ignition combustion in a V6 direct-injection engine with cam profile switching'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222 (10).  pp. 1911 - 1926. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO846 Download publication 

Zhao, H.  and Zhang, S.   (2008)   'Quantitative measurements of in-cylinder gas composition in a controlled auto-ignition combustion engine'. Measurement Science and Technology, 19 (1).  doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/19/1/015409 

Cao, L. , Zhao, H.  and Jiang, X.   (2008)   'Analysis of controlled auto-ignition/HCCI combustion in a direct injection gasoline engine with single and split fuel injections'. Combustion Science and Technology, 180 (1).  pp. 176 - 205. doi: 10.1080/00102200701600903 Download publication 

Jiang, X. , Zhao, H.  and Luo, KH.   (2007)   'Direct computation of perturbed impinging hot jets'. Computers and Fluids, 36 (2).  pp. 259 - 272. doi: 10.1016/j.compfluid.2006.01.015 

Leach, B. , Zhao, H. , Li, Y.  and Ma, T.   (2007)   'Two-phase, fuel distribution measurements in a gasoline direct injection engine with an air-assisted injector using advanced optical diagnostics'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 221 (6).  pp. 663 - 673. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO305 

Jiang, X. , Zhao, H.  and Luo, KH.   (2007)   'Direct numerical simulation of a non-premixed impinging jet flame'. Journal of Heat Transfer, 129 (8).  pp. 951 - 957. doi: 10.1115/1.2737480 

Valentino, M. , Jiang, X.  and Zhao, H.   (2007)   'A comparative RANS/LES study of transient gas jets and sprays under diesel conditions'. Atomization and Sprays, 17 (5).  pp. 451 - 472. doi: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.v17.i5 

Sison, K. , Ladommatos, N. , Song, HW.  and Zhao, H.   (2007)   'Soot generation of diesel fuels with substantial amounts of oxygen-bearing compounds added'. Fuel, 86 (3).  pp. 345 - 352. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.07.019 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H. , Brouzos, N.  and Leach, B.   (2007)   'Managing controlled auto-ignition combustion by injection on a direct-injection gasoline engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 221 (9).  pp. 1125 - 1137. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO372 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H.  and Ma, T.   (2006)   'Stratification of fuel for better engine performance'. Fuel, 85 (4).  pp. 465 - 473. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2005.08.005 

Sterno, N. , Greeves, G. , Tullis, S. , Jiang, X.  and Zhao, H.   (2006)   'Simulation of the air/fuel mixing of an HSDI diesel engine. Part 1: a new dense spray vapour coupling submodel'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 220 (12).  pp. 1793 - 1805. doi: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO390 

Jiang, X. , Zhao, H.  and Cao, L.   (2006)   'Numerical simulations of the flow and sound fields of a heated axisymmetric pulsating jet'. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 51 (3-4).  pp. 643 - 660. doi: 10.1016/j.camwa.2005.03.022 

Zhu, Y.  and Zhao, H.   (2006)   'Computational study of the effects of the throat diameter of the piston bowl for the performance and emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 220 (1).  pp. 111 - 124. doi: 10.1243/095440706X72691 

Ladommatos, N. , Xiao, Z.  and Zhao, H.   (2005)   'The effect of piston bowl temperature on diesel exhaust emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 219 (3).  pp. 371 - 388. doi: 10.1243/095440705X6550 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H. , Leach, B.  and Ma, T.   (2005)   'Development of a fuel stratification spark ignition engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 219 (7).  pp. 923 - 934. doi: 10.1243/095440705X11220 

Peng, Z. , Zhao, H. , Ma, T.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2005)   'Characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and emissions of n-heptane'. Combustion Science and Technology, 177 (11).  pp. 2113 - 2150. doi: 10.1080/00102200500240588 Download publication 

Cao, L. , Zhao, H. , Jiang, X.  and Kalian, N.   (2005)   'Understanding the infiuence of valve timings on controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke port fuel injection engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 219 (6).  pp. 807 - 823. doi: 10.1243/095440705X11077 

Zhu, Y. , Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2005)   'Computational fluid dynamics study of the effects of the re-entrant lip shape and toroidal radii of piston bowl on a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine's performance and emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 219 (8).  pp. 1011 - 1023. doi: 10.1243/095440705X34649 

Su, WH. , Lin, TJ. , Zhao, H.  and Pei, YQ.   (2005)   'Research and development of an advanced combustion system for the direct injection diesel engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 219 (2).  pp. 241 - 252. doi: 10.1243/095440705X6604 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H. , Leach, B. , Ma, T.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2004)   'Characterization of in-cylinder flow structure in a high-tumble spark ignition engine'. International Journal of Engine Research, 5 (5).  pp. 375 - 400. doi: 10.1243/1468087042320924 

Zhu, Y. , Zhao, H. , Melas, DA.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2004)   'Computational study of the effects of the geometry of the piston bowl pip for a high-speed direct injection diesel engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 218 (8).  pp. 875 - 890. doi: 10.1243/0954407041581138 

Song, H. , Ladommatos, N.  and Zhao, H.   (2004)   'Morphology, size distribution, and oxidation of diesel soot'. Journal of the Energy Institute, 77 (511).  pp. 26 - 36. 

Jiang, X. , Zhao, H.  and Cao, L.   (2004)   'Direct computation of a heated axisymmetric pulsating jet'. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 46 (10).  pp. 957 - 979. doi: 10.1080/10407780490520814 

Peng, Z. , Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2003)   'Visualization of the homogeneous charge compression ignition/controlled autoignition combustion process using two-dimensional planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 217 (12).  pp. 1125 - 1134. doi: 10.1243/09544070360729464 Download publication 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2002)   'Analysis of large-scale flow characteristics in a four-valve spark ignition engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 216 (9).  pp. 923 - 938. 

Ladommatos, N. , Song, H.  and Zhao, H.   (2002)   'Measurements and predictions of diesel soot oxidation rates'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 216 (8).  pp. 677 - 689. 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H. , Peng, Z.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2002)   'Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines - experiment and flow structure analysis'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 216 (1).  pp. 65 - 81. doi: 10.1243/0954407021528913 

Zhao, H. , Peng, Z.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2001)   'Understanding of controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 215 (12).  pp. 1297 - 1310. 

Xiao, Z. , Ladommatos, N.  and Zhao, H.   (2000)   'The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenates on diesel engine emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 214 (3).  pp. 307 - 332. doi: 10.1243/0954407001527448 

Bryce, DJ. , Ladommatos, N.  and Zhao, H.   (2000)   'Quantitative investigation of soot distribution by laser-induced incandescence'. Applied Optics, 39 (27).  pp. 5012 - 5022. 

Ladommatos, N. , Xiao, Z.  and Zhao, H.   (2000)   'Effects of fuels with a low aromatic content on diesel engine exhaust emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 214 (7).  pp. 779 - 794. doi: 10.1243/0954407001527646 

Zhao, H. , Hu, J.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2000)   'In-cylinder studies of the effects of CO2 in exhaust gas recirculation on diesel combustion and emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 214 (4).  pp. 405 - 419. doi: 10.1243/0954407001527727 

Bryce, D. , Ladommatos, N. , Xiao, Z.  and Zhao, H.   (1999)   'Investigating the effect of oxygenated and aromatic compounds in fuel by comparing laser soot measurements in laminar diffusion flames with diesel-engine emissions'. Journal of the Energy Institute, 72 (493).  pp. 150 - 156. 

Zhao, H. , Calnan, P. , Ladommatos, N.  and Ma, T.   (1999)   'Development of an engine simulation program and its application to stratified charge SI engines'. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 22 (3-4).  pp. 159 - 194. doi: 10.1504/IJVD.1999.001864 

Zhao, H. , Peng, Z. , Calnan, P. , Ladommatos, N.  and Ma, T.   (1999)   'Analysis of stratified EGR and air on combustion and NO formation in a spark-ignition engine'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 213 (6).  pp. 611 - 623. doi: 10.1243/0954407991527143 

Ladommatos, N. , Abdelhalim, SM.  and Zhao, H.   (1998)   'Effects of exhaust gas recirculation temperature on diesel engine combustion and emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 212 (6).  pp. 479 - 500. doi: 10.1243/0954407981526127 

Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (1998)   'Optical diagnostics for in-cylinder mixture formation measurements in IC engines'. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24 (4).  pp. 297 - 336. doi: 10.1016/S0360-1285(98)80026-9 

Ladommatos, N. , Abdelhalim, SM. , Zhao, H.  and Hu, Z.   (1998)   'The effects of carbon dioxide in exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine emissions'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 212 (1).  pp. 25 - 42. doi: 10.1243/0954407981525777 

Ladommatos, N. , Abdelhalim, S.  and Zhao, H.   (1998)   'Control of oxides of nitrogen from diesel engines using diluents while minimising the impact on particulate pollutants'. Applied Thermal Engineering, 18 (11).  pp. 963 - 980. doi: 10.1016/S1359-4311(98)00031-3 

Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (1998)   'Optical diagnostics for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engines'. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24 (3).  pp. 221 - 255. doi: 10.1016/S0360-1285(97)00033-6 

Zhao, H.  and Ladommatos, N.   (1997)   'Engine performance monitoring using spark plug voltage analysis'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 211 (6).  pp. 499 - 509. doi: 10.1243/0954407971526614 

Ladommatos, N. , Rubenstein, P. , Harrison, K. , Xiao, Z.  and Zhao, H.   (1997)   'The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons on soot formation in laminar diffusion flames and in a diesel engine'. Journal of the Energy Institute, 70 (484).  pp. 84 - 94. 

Books

Zhao, H.   (2009) Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development: Diesel engines. Cambridge, UK:  Woodhead Publishing Limited 

Zhao, H.   (2009) Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development: Gasoline and gas engines. Cambridge, UK:  Woodhead Publishing Limited 

Book chapters

Jiang, X. , Zhao, H.  and Luo, KH.  (2006)   'Direct simulations of a transitional unsteady impinging hot jet', in Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation VI. (10) : pp. 487 - 494. 

Conference papers

Diez, A.  and Zhao, H.   (2010)   'Investigation of split injection in a single cylinder optical diesel engine' , SAE World Congress and Exhibition. Detroit, MI, USA. 12 SAE International. doi: 10.4271/2010-01-0605 Download publication 

Tongroon, M.  and Zhao, H.   (2010)   'Combustion characteristics of CAI combustion with alcohol fuels' , SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition: Kinetically Controlled CI Combustion and Controls. SAE International, pp. Paper number 2010-01-0843 - Paper number 2010-01-0843. doi: 10.4271/2010-01-0843 Download publication 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H.  and Brouzos, N.   (2008)   'CAI combustion with methanol and ethanol in an air-assisted direct injection SI engine' , SAE International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Congress. Shanghai, China. 23 SAE International. doi: 10.4271/2008-01-1673 Download publication 

Zhao, H.  and Zhang, S.   (2007)   'Spontaneous Raman scattering for simultaneous measurements of in-cylinder species' , 3rd International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics (ICOLAD 2007). London, UK. 22 - 25 May. [unpublished].  doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/85/1/012006 Download publication 

Li, Y. , Zhao, H.  and Ma, T.   (2005)   'Flow and mixture optimization for a fuel stratification engine using PIV and PLIF techniques' , 2nd International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics. London, UK. 11 - 14 September. [unpublished].  

Man, KY. , Zhao, H. , Ma, T.  and Oakley, AJ.   (2004)   'Effect of fuel properties on CAI/HCCI combustion and emission in a 4-stroke gasoline engine' , International Conference on Which Fuels for Low CO2 Engines?. Rueil Malmaison, France. 22 - 23 September. [unpublished].  

Zhao, H. , Li, J. , Ma, T.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2002)   'Performance and analysis of a 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine with CAI combustion' , SAE World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, Michigan, USA. 23 SAE International. doi: 10.4271/2002-01-0420 Download publication 

Leach, B. , Zhao, H. , Li, Y. , Ma, T. , et al.   (2002)   'Characterization of in-cylinder fuel distribution from an air-assisted fuel injection system using advanced laser diagnostics' , Conference on Fuel Injection Systems. London, UK. 26 - 27 November. [unpublished].  

Oakley, A. , Zhao, H. , Ma, T.  and Ladommatos, N.   (2001)   'Dilution effects on the controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion of hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels' , SAE International Fall Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exhibition. San Antonio, Texas, USA. 24 SAE International. doi: 10.4271/2001-01-3606 Download publication 

Li, J. , Zhao, H. , Ladommatos, N.  and Ma, T.   (2001)   'Research and development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion in a 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine' , SAE International Fall Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exhibition. San Antonio, Texas, USA. 24 SAE International. doi: 10.4271/2001-01-3608 Download publication 

Oakley, A. , Zhao, H. , Ladommatos, N.  and Ma, T.   (2000)   'Experimental studies on Controlled Auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a 4-stroke gasoline engine' , International Conference on 21st Century Emissions Technology. London, UK. 4 - 5 December. [unpublished].  

Zhao, H. , Williams, J. , Damiano, L. , Bryce, D. , et al.   (2000)   'Development of a specially designed optical engine and laser diagnostics for stratified charge and controlled auto-ignition combustion studies' , International Conference on Computational and Experimental Methods in Reciprocating Engines. London, UK. 1 - 2 November. [unpublished].  

Calnan, PCC. , Zhao, H. , Ladommatos, N.  and Ma, T.   (1998)   'Analysis of axial stratification on Sl engine performance and emissions' , International Conference on Combustion Engines and Hybrid Vehicles. London, UK. 28 - 30 April. [unpublished].  

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Ladommatos, N. , Abdelhalim, SM.  and Zhao, H.   (1996)   'The effects of carbon dioxide in EGR on diesel engine emissions' , International Seminar on Application of Powertrain and Fuel Technologies to Meet Emissions Standards. London, UK. 24 - 26 June. [unpublished].  

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