Andreas Kortenkamp

Summary

andreas-kortenkamp
Traditional chemicals risk assessment has a quite artificial orientation: It treats chemicals as if they act in isolation, when in reality there is exposure to multiple substances. For more than 15 years, our team have been engaged in efforts to find ways of improving risk assessment by taking “cocktail effects” into account. This work has proceeded in stages: Firstly, when we have information about the toxicity of individual mixture components, is it possible to predict the effects of the combination? Working with mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals we have shown that this is achievable. Secondly, what is the composition of mixtures of environmental relevance, and what effects do they produce? Work on this aspect of the mixtures issue is currently proceeding in our group. We are also interested in making an impact on chemical regulation by addressing the questions: Which chemicals should be grouped together for mixtures risk assessment? What are scientifically sound grouping criteria?

We have prepared scientific reports for the European Commission, including the State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicology. Currently we are writing a State of the Art Assessment for Endocrine Disrupters, a project also commissioned by the European Commission.

Another research interest is in unravelling the details of estrogen signalling and estrogen-mediated effects with a view to understanding hormonal cancers, especially breast cancer. Here, I closely collaborate with Dr Elisabete Silva.

Qualifications

1983: Degree in Chemistry, Philosophy and Educational Sciences from University of Muenster, Germany
1989: PhD (with distinction) from Bremen University, Bremen, Germany

Career

  • 1990-1991: Post-doctoral Fellow at Queen Mary London, University of London.
  • 1991-2000: Lecturer in Environmental Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London.
  • 2000-2005: Senior Lecturer, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London.
  • 2005-2007: Reader and Head of Centre for Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London.
  • 2007-2011: Professor for Molecular Toxicology, Head of Centre for Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London.
  • 2011-present: Professor in the Institute for the Environment, Brunel University.

Research area(s)

Research Activities:

Research Projects

My research interest falls into three broad areas: understanding the combined effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants on human health and wildlife, developing strategies for handling mixtures in chemicals regulation, and dissecting the events important in hormonal carcinogenesis.

1. Understanding combination effects of mixtures

Not long ago, the topic of mixture effects of chemicals was deemed too difficult to be approached experimentally. There has been, and still is, a confusion of important terms and concepts in mixture toxicology, as well as experimental approaches. We have tried to understand mixture effects in terms of the toxicity of individual mixture components: Is it possible to predict accurately the effects of a mixture, when we have information about the toxicity of its components, and of the mixture ratio?

Another issue arising from the experimental mixture studies is: How many chemicals are humans or wildlife exposed to simultaneously, and which of these contribute substantially to a specific combination effect? We are currently pursuing this problem by investigating mixtures that are modelled on realistic exposure scenarios.

2. Regulatory strategies for dealing with mixtures

A new consensus is emerging that mixture effects should be the topic of chemicals risk assessment. Any strategy for dealing with combination effects has to address the question: Which chemicals should be grouped together to be subjected to mixtures risk assessment? There are at least two approaches to resolving this question: Firstly, those chemicals that humans and wildlife come into contact with simultaneously should be considered. Secondly, chemicals that can produce similar adverse outcomes should also be grouped together. Our team is engaged in developing viable, pragmatic grouping criteria for chemicals in mixture risk assessment.

3. Hormones and hormonal carcinogenesis

While it is clear that hormones play a role in cancers of the breast, prostate and testes, their precise involvement in the disease process is far from clear. Our team is interested in studying the details of cell division and differentiation, and the role that steroid hormones and other hormonally active chemicals play in these processes. Here, we are collaborating closely with Dr Elisabete Silva.

Current grants

  • European Commission, £650,000 (over 3.5 years, ending 2012) for research into antiandrogens and human reproductive health, CONTAMED (Grant agreement number 212502)
  • Oak Foundation (Geneva, Switzerland), £219,000 (over two years, ending 2012) for a project entitled “Combined exposures to endocrine disrupters: bridging the gap between science and chemicals risk assessment and regulation”
  • European Commission (DG Environment), £253,000 (over 20 months, ending 2011) for a State of the Art Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters
  • Food Standards Agency, £153,000 (over two years, ending 2012) for a project investigating the mixture effects of benzimidazole pesticides, contract T10053
  • European Commission, £150,000 (over 5 years, ending 2013) for research into combination effects of neurotoxic agents, ESNATS project
  • European Food Standards Authority, £170,000 (over 1 year) for developing grouping criteria for pesticides that act by different modes of action (contract CFT/EFSA/PPR/2010/02)

Completed projects

  • European Commission (DG Environment), £ 150,000 for a State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicology (completed 2009)
  • Food Standards Agency, £482,112 (over three years) to investigate combination effects of multi-components mixtures of endocrine active food contaminants, contract T01045 (completed 2009)
  • Bioforce Ltd, Switzerland, £85,000 (over three years) for a PhD studentship on the hormonal effects of plant extracts (awarded jointly to Dr Deniz Tasdemir, Centre for Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy), (completed 2011)
  • 2004 Bioforce Ltd, Switzerland granted £75,000 (over three years) for a PhD studentship on adverse reactions to herbal medicine products (awarded jointly to Prof Heinrich, Centre for Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy) , (completed 2010)
  • European Commission awarded 1,371,667 Euros (over four years, extended to 4.5 years) for research on endocrine disrupters. EDEN - Endocrine Disrupters: Exploring Novel Endpoints, Exposure, Low-Dose- and Mixture-Effects in Humans, Aquatic Wildlife and Laboratory Animals (EU-project Contract No QLRT-2001-00603), (completed 2007)
  • European Commission awarded 264,322 Euros (over three years) for research on combination effects of aquatic pollutants with oestrogenic activity. ACE – Analysing combination effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals in marine and freshwater organisms (EU-project Contract No. EVK1-CT-2001-00100), (completed 2004)
  • 1999 JNICT, Programa Ciencia, Portugal, awarded £55,000 (over three years) for support of a PhD project on mixture effects of xenoestrogens (completed 2002)

Impact

Our work is beginning to have significant political impact at the European Union level: In 2008 the Danish Government charged us with organizing an international workshop on combination effects of chemicals (28-30 January 2009, Hornbaek, Denmark)

The outcomes of this workshop were taken forward by the Danish Government to the European Council and have contributed to the Decision of the European Council of Environment Ministers of December 2009 on combinations effects of chemicals.

In December 2007 the European Commission, DG Environment commissioned a State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicology which a consortium under our leadership won by competitive tender. The report was completed in December 2009 and was explicitly referred to in the European Council decision on combination effects of chemicals.

Membership and affiliation

  • 2005: Membership of the Technical Working Group “Research Needs”, advising the European Commission on research strategies on Environment and Health for the period from 2006 to 2010 (SCALE – European Environment and Health Strategy)
  • 2005 – 2006: Member of the Scientific Committee of the “Weybridge +10" conference on endocrine disruption, 8-10 Nov 2006, Helsinki, Finland, an event organised under the auspices of the Finnish EU presidency
  • 2006: Elected vice chair of the 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Environmental Endocrine Disrupters
  • 2007 – 2008: Member of the National Research Council (US National Academy Sciences) panel on “Cumulative risk assessment for phthalates – the tasks ahead”
  • Elected chair of the 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Environmental Endocrine Disrupters
  • 2010-2012: On the nomination of the President of the US National Academy of Sciences appointed to the US Consumer Health Advisory Panel (CHAP) on risks of phthalate exposures
  • 2010: Member of the World Health Organisation panel on updating the Global Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters
  • 2010: Member of a panel of the European Food Standards Authority on assessing mixtures of pesticides with similar modes of action

Research

Research centre(s)

Special Research Institute(s)

Teaching/Supervision

Research supervision

Current PhD students

  • Ms Alexandra Ouertani (Determinants of cell cycle entry in normal mammary epithelial cells, part-funded by a School of Pharmacy PhD Scholarship)
  • Ms Maria Riverso (Cell-cell communication between mammary epithelial cells, jointly supervised with Dr Elisabete Silva, part-funded by a School of Pharmacy PhD Scholarship, and by a School of Pharmacy bequest)

Selected Publications

Journal articles

Bourguignon, J-P. , Slama, R. , Bergman, Å. , Demeneix, B. , et al.   (2016)   'Science-based regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in Europe: which approach?'. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30121-8 Download publication 

Kortenkamp, A. , Bourguignon, J-P. , Slama, R. , Bergman, Å. , et al.   (2016)   'EU regulation of endocrine disruptors: a missed opportunity'. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30151-6 Download publication 

Vandenberg, LN. , Ågerstrand, M. , Beronius, A. , Beausoleil, C. , et al.   (2016)   'A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals'. Environmental Health. doi: 10.1186/s12940-016-0156-6 Download publication 

Slama, R. , Bourguignon, J-P. , Demeneix, B. , Ivell, R. , et al.   (2016)   'Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine Disrupting Substances in the European Union'. Environmental Health Perspectives. doi: 10.1289/EHP217 Download publication 

Zoeller, RT. , Bergman, A. , Becher, G. , Bjerregaard, P. , et al.   (2016)   'The Path Forward on Endocrine Disruptors Requires Focus on the Basics'. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 149 (2).  pp. 272 - 272. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv255 

Trasande, L. , Zoeller, RT. , Hass, U. , Kortenkamp, A. , et al.   (2016)   'Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis.'. Andrology. doi: 10.1111/andr.12178 Download publication 

Portier, CJ. , Armstrong, BK. , Baguley, BC. , Baur, X. , et al.   (2016)   'Differences in the carcinogenic evaluation of glyphosate between the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)'. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70 (8).  doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-207005 Download publication 

Fernández, MF. , Arrebola, JP. , Jiménez-Díaz, I. , Sáenz, JM. , et al.   (2016)   'Bisphenol A and other phenols in human placenta from children with cryptorchidism or hypospadias'. Reproductive Toxicology, 59 pp. 89 - 95. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.11.002 

Kugathas, S. , Audouze, K. , Ermler, S. , Orton, F. , et al.   (2016)   'Effects of common pesticides on prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) inhibition in SC5 mouse sertoli cells, evidence of binding at the cox-2 active site, and implications for endocrine disruption'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124 (4).  pp. 452 - 459. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409544 Download publication 

Evans, RM. , Martin, OV. , Faust, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2016)   'Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?'. Science of The Total Environment, 543 pp. 757 - 764. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.162 Download publication 

Evans, RM. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2015)   'Examining the feasibility of mixture risk assessment: A case study using a tiered approach with data of 67 pesticides from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR)'. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 84 pp. 260 - 269. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.08.015 

Arrebola, JP. , Molina-Molina, JM. , Fernández, MF. , Sáenz, JM. , et al.   (2015)   'A novel biomarker for anti-androgenic activity in placenta reveals risks of urogenital malformations'. Reproduction, 149 (6).  pp. 605 - 613. doi: 10.1530/REP-14-0525 

Lichtensteiger, W. , Bassetti-Gaille, C. , Faass, O. , Axelstad, M. , et al.   (2015)   'Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Developing Sexually Dimorphic Rat Brain Regions Exposed to Antiandrogenic, Estrogenic, or Complex Endocrine Disruptor Mixtures: Glutamatergic Synapses as Target'. ENDOCRINOLOGY, 156 (4).  pp. 1477 - 1493. doi: 10.1210/en.2014-1504 

Lioy, PJ. , Hauser, R. , Gennings, C. , Koch, HM. , et al.   (2015)   'Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission'. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 25 (4).  pp. 343 - 353. doi: 10.1038/jes.2015.33 

Hauser, R. , Skakkebaek, NE. , Hass, U. , Toppari, J. , et al.   (2015)   'Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union'. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, 100 (4).  pp. 1267 - 1277. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4325 

Trasande, L. , Zoeller, RT. , Hass, U. , Kortenkamp, A. , et al.   (2015)   'Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union'. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 100 (4).  pp. 1245 - 1255. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4324 

Altenburger, R. , Ait-Aissa, S. , Antczak, P. , Backhaus, T. , et al.   (2015)   'Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management'. Science of the Total Environment, 512-513 pp. 540 - 551. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.057 Download publication 

Brack, W. , Altenburger, R. , Schüürmann, G. , Krauss, M. , et al.   (2015)   'The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management'. Science of the Total Environment, 503-504 pp. 22 - 31. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.143 Download publication 

Zoeller, RT. , Bergman, A. , Becher, G. , Bjerregaard, P. , et al.   (2014)   'A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals'. Environmental Health, 13 pp. . doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-118 Download publication 

Lioy, PJ. , Gennings, C. , Hauser, R. , Koch, HM.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2014)   'Changing trends in phthalate exposures'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122 (10).  pp. 264 - 264. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408629 Download publication 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2014)   'Low dose mixture effects of endocrine disrupters and their implications for regulatory thresholds in chemical risk assessment'. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 19 pp. 105 - 111. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2014.08.006 

Isling, LK. , Boberg, J. , Jacobsen, PR. , Mandrup, KR. , et al.   (2014)   'Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters'. REPRODUCTION, 147 (4).  pp. 465 - 476. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0448 

Riverso, M. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Silva, E.   (2014)   'Non-tumorigenic epithelial cells secrete MCP-1 and other cytokines that promote cell division in breast cancer cells by activating ERα via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling'. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 53 pp. 281 - 294. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.05.023 Download publication 

Scholze, M. , Silva, E.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2014)   'Extending the applicability of the dose addition model to the assessment of chemical mixtures of partial agonists by using a novel toxic unit extrapolation method'. PLoS ONE, 9 (2).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088808 Download publication 

Kortenkamp, A. , Scholze, M.  and Ermler, S.   (2014)   'Mind the gap: Can we explain declining male reproductive health with known antiandrogens?'. Reproduction, 147 (4).  pp. 515 - 527. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0440 Download publication 

Ermler, S. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2014)   'Genotoxic mixtures and dissimilar action: Concepts for prediction and assessment'. Archives of Toxicology, 88 (3).  pp. 799 - 814. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1170-x Download publication 

Axelstad, M. , Christiansen, S. , Boberg, J. , Scholze, M. , et al.   (2014)   'Mixtures of endocrine-disrupting contaminants induce adverse developmental effects in preweaning rats'. REPRODUCTION, 147 (4).  pp. 489 - 501. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0447 

Rahte, S. , Evans, R. , Eugster, PJ. , Marcourt, L. , et al.   (2013)   'Salvia officinalis for Hot Flushes: Towards Determination of Mechanism of Activity and Active Principles'. PLANTA MEDICA, 79 (9).  pp. 753 - 760. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328552 

Bergman, Å. , Heindel, JJ. , Kasten, T. , Byléhn, AS. , et al.   (2013)   'The impact of endocrine disruption: A consensus statement on the state of the science'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121 (4).  pp. a104 - a106. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205448 Download publication 

Ermler, S. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2013)   'Seven benzimidazole pesticides combined at sub-threshold levels induce micronuclei in vitro'. Mutagenesis, 28 (4).  pp. 417 - 426. doi: 10.1093/mutage/get019 Download publication 

Pottinger, TG. , Katsiadaki, I. , Jolly, C. , Sanders, M. , et al.   (2013)   'Anti-androgens act jointly in suppressing spiggin concentrations in androgen-primed female three-spined sticklebacks - Prediction of combined effects by concentration addition'. Aquatic Toxicology, 140-141 pp. 145 - 156. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.05.020 Download publication 

Bergman, A. , Andersson, A-M. , Becher, G. , van den Berg, M. , et al.   (2013)   'Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed: A reply to a "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors'. Environmental Health, 12 pp. . doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-69 Download publication 

Orton, F. , Ermler, S. , Kugathas, S. , Rosivatz, E. , et al.   (2014)   'Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products'. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 278 (3).  pp. 201 - 208. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.09.008 

Orton, F. , Rosivatz, E. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2012)   'Competitive androgen receptor antagonism as a factor determining the predictability of cumulative antiandrogenic effects of widely used pesticides'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120 (11).  pp. 1578 - 1584. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205391 Download publication 

Evans, RM. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2012)   'Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles'. PLoS One, 7 (8).  pp. e43606 - e43606. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043606 Download publication 

Krug, AK. , Kolde, R. , Gaspar, JA. , Rempel, E. , et al.   (2013)   'Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: a transcriptomics approach'. ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY, 87 (1).  pp. 123 - 143. doi: 10.1007/s00204-012-0967-3 

Kortenkamp, A. , Martin, O. , Evans, R. , Orton, F. , et al.   (2012)   'Response to A critique of the European Commission Document, "State of the Art Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters" by Rhomberg and colleagues - letter to the editor'. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN TOXICOLOGY, 42 (9).  pp. 787 - 789. doi: 10.3109/10408444.2012.712943 

Christiansen, S. , Kortenkamp, A. , Axelstad, M. , Boberg, J. , et al.   (2012)   'Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures: an exploratory study in rats'. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, 35 (3).  pp. 303 - 316. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01242.x 

Snijder, CA. , Kortenkamp, A. , Steegers, EAP. , Jaddoe, VWV. , et al.   (2012)   'Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in the offspring: The Generation R Study'. Human Reproduction, 27 (4).  pp. 1191 - 1201. doi: 10.1093/humrep/der474 Download publication 

Ermler, S. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2011)   'The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay'. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY, 257 (2).  pp. 189 - 197. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2011.09.005 

Modarai, M. , Silva, E. , Suter, A. , Heinrich, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2011)   'Safety of Herbal Medicinal Products: Echinacea and Selected Alkylamides Do Not Induce CYP3A4 mRNA Expression'. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 2011 pp. 213021 - 213021. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep174 Download publication 

Modarai, M. , Suter, A. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Heinrich, M.   (2011)   'The interaction potential of herbal medicinal products: a luminescence-based screening platform assessing effects on cytochrome P450 and its use with devil's claw (Harpagophyti radix) preparations'. JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, 63 (3).  pp. 429 - 438. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2010.01235.x 

  (2011)   'Are cadmium and other heavy metal compounds acting as endocrine disrupters?'. Metal ions in life sciences, 8 pp. 305 - 317. 

Orton, F. , Rosivatz, E. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2011)   'Widely used pesticides with previously unknown endocrine activity revealed as in vitro antiandrogens'. Environ Health Perspect, 119 (6).  pp. 794 - 800. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002895 Download publication 

Silva, E. , Rajapakse, N. , Scholze, M. , Backhaus, T. , et al.   (2011)   'Joint Effects of Heterogeneous Estrogenic Chemicals in the E-Screen-Exploring the Applicability of Concentration Addition'. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 122 (2).  pp. 383 - 394. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr103 

Modarai, M. , Yang, M. , Suter, A. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Heinrich, M.   (2010)   'Metabolomic Profiling of Liquid Echinacea Medicinal Products with In Vitro Inhibitory Effects on Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)'. PLANTA MEDICA, 76 (4).  pp. 378 - 385. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1186152 

Kortenkamp, A.  and Faust, M.   (2010)   'Combined exposures to anti-androgenic chemicals: steps towards cumulative risk assessment'. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, 33 (2).  pp. 463 - 472. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01047.x 

Silva, E. , Kabil, A.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2010)   'Cross-talk between non-genomic and genomic signalling pathways - Distinct effect profiles of environmental estrogens'. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY, 245 (2).  pp. 159 - +. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.02.015 

Ermler, S. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2010)   'The sensitivity of the MDA-kb2 cell in vitro assay in detecting anti-androgenic chemicals - Identification of sources of variability and estimation of statistical power'. TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO, 24 (6).  pp. 1845 - 1853. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.05.007 

Evans, RM. , Rahte, S.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2010)   'Inability to confirm estrogenicity of the heterocyclic amine PhIP in two in vitro assays'. TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO, 24 (6).  pp. 1757 - 1763. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.12.017 

Lopez-Espinosa, M-J. , Silva, E. , Granada, A. , Molina-Molina, J-M. , et al.   (2009)   'Assessment of the total effective xenoestrogen burden in extracts of human placentas'. Biomarkers, 14 (5).  pp. 271 - 277. doi: 10.1080/13547500902893744 

Christiansen, S. , Dalgaard, M. , Vinggaard, AM. , Axelstad, M. , et al.   (2009)   'Synergistic disruption of external male sex organ development by a mixture of four antiandrogens'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117 (12).  pp. 1839 - 1846. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900689 Download publication 

Heinrich, M. , Modaral, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2008)   'Herbal extracts used for upper respiratory tract infections: Are there clinically relevant interactions with the cytochrome P450 enzyme system?'. PLANTA MEDICA, 74 (6).  pp. 657 - 660. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1034292 

Modarai, M. , Suter, A. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Heinrich, M.   (2008)   'CYP3A4 inhibitory compounds from Echinacea extract (Echinaforce (R))'. PLANTA MEDICA, 74 (9).  pp. 1070 - 1071. 

Johnson, AC. , Jürgens, MD. , Williams, RJ. , Kümmerer, K. , et al.   (2008)   'Do cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs discharged into rivers pose a risk to the environment and human health? An overview and UK case study'. Journal of Hydrology, 348 (1-2).  pp. 167 - 175. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.09.054 

  (2008)   'Combined effects of endocrine disruptors: Evaluation of the last 10 years'. Environnement, Risques et Sante, 7 (3).  pp. 172. 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2008)   'Low dose mixture effects of endocrine disrupters: implications for risk assessment and epidemiology'. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, 31 (2).  pp. 233 - 237. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00862.x 

Christiansen, S. , Scholze, M. , Axelstad, M. , Boberg, J. , et al.   (2008)   'Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat'. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, 31 (2).  pp. 241 - 247. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00866.x 

Brian, JV. , Harris, CA. , Runnalls, TJ. , Fantinati, A. , et al.   (2008)   'Evidence of temperature-dependent effects on the estrogenic response of fish: Implications with regard to climate change'. Science of The Total Environment, 397 (1-3).  pp. 72 - 81. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.036 Download publication 

Kabil, A. , Silva, E.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2008)   'Estrogens and genomic instability in human breast cancer cells - Involvement of Src/Raf/Erk signaling in micronucleus formation by estrogenic chemicals'. Carcinogenesis, 29 (10).  pp. 1862 - 1868. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgn138 Download publication 

Modarai, M. , Wilson, N. , Politi, M. , Suter, A. , et al.   (2007)   'Echinacea liquid formulations - NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis of fractions with CYP3A4 inhibitory activity'. JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, 59 pp. A63 - A63. 

Heinrich, M. , Modarai, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Drug interactions with Echinacea: does it matter how the product is made?'. JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, 59 pp. A80 - A80. 

Modarai, M. , Gertsch, J. , Suter, A. , Heinrich, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Cytochrome P450 inhibitory action of Echinacea preparations differs widely and co-varies with alkylamide content'. JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, 59 (4).  pp. 567 - 573. doi: 10.1211/jpp.59.4.0012 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Introduction: Endocrine disruptors-exposure assessment, novel end points, and low-dose and mixture effects'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 7 - 7. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10517 Download publication 

Brian, JV. , Harris, CA. , Scholze, M. , Kortenkamp, A. , et al.   (2007)   'Evidence of estrogenic mixture effects on the reproductive performance of fish'. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (1).  pp. 337 - 344. doi: 10.1021/es0617439 Download publication 

Metzdorff, SB. , Dalgaard, M. , Christiansen, S. , Axelstad, M. , et al.   (2007)   'Dysgenesis and histological changes of genitals and perturbations of gene expression in male rats after in utero exposure to antiandrogen mixtures'. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 98 (1).  pp. 87 - 98. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfm079 

Christiansen, S. , Axelstad, M. , Kortenkamp, A. , Stolze, M.  and Hass, U.   (2007)   'Combined exposure to dissimilarly acting anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequency of hypospadias in the rat'. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS, 172 pp. S179 - +. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2007.05.456 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Ten years of mixing cocktails: A review of combination effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 98 - 105. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9357 Download publication 

Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Statistical power considerations show the endocrine disruptor low-dose issue in a new light'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 84 - 90. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9364 Download publication 

Kortenkamp, A. , Faust, M. , Scholze, M.  and Backhaus, T.   (2007)   'Low-level exposure to multiple chemicals: Reason for human health concerns?'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 106 - 114. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9358 Download publication 

Hass, U. , Scholze, M. , Christiansen, S. , Dalgaard, M. , et al.   (2007)   'Combined exposure to anti-androgens exacerbates disruption of sexual differentiation in the rat'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 122 - 128. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9360 Download publication 

Silva, E. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'Activity of xenoestrogens at nanomolar concentrations in the E-screen assay'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115 (SUPPL1).  pp. 91 - 97. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9363 Download publication 

Sumpter, JP. , Johnson, AC. , Williams, RJ. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Scholze, M.   (2006)   'Modeling effects of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals at the river catchment scale'. Environmental Science and Technology, 40 (17).  pp. 5478 - 5489. doi: 10.1021/es052554d 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2006)   'Breast cancer, oestrogens and environmental pollutants: a re-evaluation from a mixture perspective'. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, 29 (1).  pp. 193 - 198. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00613.x 

Silva, E. , Lopez-Espinosa, MJ. , Molina-Molina, J-M. , Fernandez, M. , et al.   (2006)   'Lack of activity of cadmium in in vitro estrogenicity assays'. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY, 216 (1).  pp. 20 - 28. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.04.002 

Schulte-Oehlmann, U.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2005)   'The Prague declaration on endocrine disruption'. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 12 (4).  pp. 188. doi: 10.1065/espr2005.04.002 

Rajapakse, N. , Butterworth, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2005)   'Detection of DNA strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases at the single-cell level resulting from exposure to estradiol and hydroxylated metabolites'. ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, 45 (4).  pp. 397 - 404. doi: 10.1002/em.20104 

Shayer, R. , Kinchesh, P. , Raffray, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2004)   'Biomonitoring of chromium(VI) deposited in pulmonary tissues: pilot studies of a magnetic resonance imaging technique in a post-mortem rodent model'. BIOMARKERS, 9 (1).  pp. 32 - 46. doi: 10.1080/13547500310001659037 

Peck, M. , Gibson, RW. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Hill, EM.   (2004)   'Sediments are major sinks of steroidal estrogens in two United Kingdom rivers'. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, 23 (4).  pp. 945 - 952. doi: 10.1897/03-41 

Rajapakse, N. , Silva, E. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2004)   'Deviation from additivity with estrogenic mixtures containing 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol detected in the E-SCREEN assay'. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 38 (23).  pp. 6343 - 6352. doi: 10.1021/es049681e 

Tang, S. , Bremner, P. , Kortenkamp, A. , Schlage, C. , et al.   (2003)   'Biflavonoids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity from Ochna macrocalyx'. PLANTA MEDICA, 69 (3).  pp. 247 - 253. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-38478 

Silva, E. , Rajapakse, N.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2002)   'Something from "nothing" - Eight weak estrogenic chemicals combined at concentrations below NOECs produce significant mixture effects'. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 36 (8).  pp. 1751 - 1756. doi: 10.1021/es0101227 

Rajapakse, N. , Silva, E.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2002)   'Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110 (9).  pp. 917 - 921. Download publication 

Payne, J. , Scholze, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2001)   'Mixtures of four organochlorines enhance human breast cancer cell proliferation'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109 (4).  pp. 391 - 397. Download publication 

Rajapakse, N. , Ong, D.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2001)   'Defining the impact of weakly estrogenic chemicals on the action of steroidal estrogens'. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 60 (2).  pp. 296 - 304. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/60.2.296 

Jones, C.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2000)   'RAPD library fingerprinting of bacterial and human DNA: Applications in mutation detection'. TERATOGENESIS CARCINOGENESIS AND MUTAGENESIS, 20 (2).  pp. 49 - 63. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6866(2000)20:2<49::AID-TCM1>3.0.CO;2-D 

Jones, C. , Payne, J. , Wells, D. , Delhanty, JDA. , et al.   (2000)   'Comparative genomic hybridization reveals extensive variation among different MCF-7 cell stocks'. CANCER GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS, 117 (2).  pp. 153 - 158. doi: 10.1016/S0165-4608(99)00158-2 

Payne, J. , Jones, C. , Lakhani, S.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2000)   'Improving the reproducibility of the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay for the detection of xenoestrogens'. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 248 (1).  pp. 51 - 62. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00479-9 

Payne, J. , Rajapakse, N. , Wilkins, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2000)   'Prediction and assessment of the effects of mixtures of four xenoestrogens'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108 (10).  pp. 983 - 987. Download publication 

  (1999)   'Formation of DNA damage by 17 β-oestradiol in MCI-7 breast cancer cells'. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 51 (SUPPL.).  pp. 151. 

Kortenkamp, A.  and Altenburger, R.   (1999)   'Approaches to assessing combination effects of oestrogenic environmental pollutants'. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 233 (1-3).  pp. 131 - 140. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00228-4 

Casadevall, M. , Fresco, PD.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (1999)   'Chromium(VI)-mediated DNA damage: oxidative pathways resulting in the formation of DNA breaks and abasic sites'. CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS, 123 (2).  pp. 117 - 132. doi: 10.1016/S0009-2797(99)00128-3 

Kortenkamp, A.  and Altenburger, R.   (1998)   'Synergisms with mixtures of xenoestrogens: A reevaluation using the method of isoboles'. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 221 (1).  pp. 59 - 73. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00261-7 

Kortenkamp, A.   (1997)   'Problems in the biological monitoring of chromium(VI) exposed individuals'. BIOMARKERS, 2 (2).  pp. 73 - 79. doi: 10.1080/135475097231788 

Kortenkamp, A. , Jones, C.  and Baker, J.   (1997)   'Genotypic selection of mutated DNA sequences using mismatch cleavage analysis, a possible basis for novel mutation assays'. MUTAGENESIS, 12 (5).  pp. 335 - 338. doi: 10.1093/mutage/12.5.335 

Kortenkamp, A. , Casadevall, M.  and DaCruzFresco, P.   (1996)   'The reductive conversion of the carcinogen chromium (VI) and its role in the formation of DNA lesions'. ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE, 26 (2).  pp. 160 - 175. 

Kortenkamp, A. , Casadevall, M. , Faux, SP. , Jenner, A. , et al.   (1996)   'A role for molecular oxygen in the formation of DNA damage during the reduction of the carcinogen chromium(VI) by glutathione'. ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS, 329 (2).  pp. 199 - 207. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1996.0209 

Kortenkamp, A.   (1996)   'Pharmacokinetic modelling in chromium risk assessment - A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements - Comment'. HUMAN & EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, 15 (7).  pp. 601 - 602. 

CASADEVALL, M.  and KORTENKAMP, A.   (1995)   'THE FORMATION OF BOTH APURINIC APYRIMIDINIC SITES AND SINGLE-STRAND BREAKS BY CHROMATE AND GLUTATHIONE ARISES FROM ATTACK BY THE SAME SINGLE REACTIVE SPECIES AND IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR-OXYGEN'. CARCINOGENESIS, 16 (4).  pp. 805 - 809. doi: 10.1093/carcin/16.4.805 

FRESCO, PD. , SHACKER, F.  and KORTENKAMP, A.   (1995)   'THE REDUCTIVE CONVERSION OF CHROMIUM(VI) BY ASCORBATE GIVES RISE TO APURINIC APYRIMIDINIC SITES IN ISOLATED DNA'. CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN TOXICOLOGY, 8 (6).  pp. 884 - 890. doi: 10.1021/tx00048a009 

CASADEVALL, M.  and KORTENKAMP, A.   (1994)   'THE GENERATION OF APURINIC/APYRIMIDINIC SITES IN ISOLATED DNA DURING THE REDUCTION OF CHROMATE BY GLUTATHIONE'. CARCINOGENESIS, 15 (2).  pp. 407 - 409. doi: 10.1093/carcin/15.2.407 

Kortenkamp, A.  and O'Brien, P.   (1994)   'The generation of DNA single-strand breaks during the reduction of chromate by ascorbic acid and/or glutathione in vitro'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102 (SUPPL. 3).  pp. 237 - 241. Download publication 

FRESCO, PD.  and KORTENKAMP, A.   (1994)   'THE FORMATION OF DNA-CLEAVING SPECIES DURING THE REDUCTION OF CHROMATE BY ASCORBATE'. CARCINOGENESIS, 15 (9).  pp. 1773 - 1778. 

O'Brien, P.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (1994)   'Chemical models important in understanding the ways in which chromate can damage DNA.'. Environ Health Perspect, 102 Suppl 3 pp. 3 - 10. Download publication 

Kortenkamp, A. , Obrien, P.  and Beyersmann, D.   (1992)   'Fluorescence studies of dye displacement from DNA by Chromium(iii) complexes - evidence for Cation induced DNA condensations'. TOXICOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY, 35 (3-4).  pp. 149 - 159. doi: 10.1080/02772249209357811 

KORTENKAMP, A. , CURRAN, B.  and OBRIEN, P.   (1992)   'DEFINING CONDITIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT INVITRO CROSS-LINKING OF PROTEINS TO DNA BY CHROMIUM(III) COMPOUNDS'. CARCINOGENESIS, 13 (2).  pp. 307 - 308. doi: 10.1093/carcin/13.2.307 

KORTENKAMP, A.  and OBRIEN, P.   (1991)   'STUDIES OF THE BINDING OF CHROMIUM(III) COMPLEXES TO PHOSPHATE GROUPS OF ADENOSINE-TRIPHOSPHATE'. CARCINOGENESIS, 12 (5).  pp. 921 - 926. doi: 10.1093/carcin/12.5.921 

JONES, P. , KORTENKAMP, A. , OBRIEN, P. , WANG, GF.  and YANG, G.   (1991)   'EVIDENCE FOR THE GENERATION OF HYDROXYL RADICALS FROM A CHROMIUM(V) INTERMEDIATE ISOLATED FROM THE REACTION OF CHROMATE WITH GLUTATHIONE'. ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS, 286 (2).  pp. 652 - 655. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(91)90095-Z 

Kortenkamp, A. , O'brien, P.  and Beyersmann, D.   (1991)   'The reduction of chromate is a prerequisite of chromium binding to cell nuclei'. Carcinogenesis, 12 (6).  pp. 1143 - 1144. doi: 10.1093/carcin/12.6.1143 

Kortenkamp, A. , Ozolins, Z. , Beyersmann, D.  and Obrien, P.   (1989)   'Generation of PM2 DNA breaks in the course of reduction of Chromium(VI) by Glutathione'. MUTATION RESEARCH, 216 (1).  pp. 19 - 26. doi: 10.1016/0165-1161(89)90019-8 

Kortenkamp, A. , Beyersmann, D.  and Obrien, P.   (1987)   'Uptake of Chromium(III) complexes by erythrocytes'. TOXICOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY, 14 (1-2).  pp. 23 - 32. doi: 10.1080/02772248709357191 

Conference papers

Kortenkamp, A.   (2013)   'How is new science used in regulatory approaches for dealing with endocrine disrupters?' , 49th Congress of the European-Societies-of-Toxicology (EUROTOX). Interlaken, SWITZERLAND. 1 - 4 September. ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, pp. S37 - S37. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.06.131 

Lichtensteiger, W. , Bassetti-Gaille, C. , Faass, O. , Boberg, J. , et al.   (2013)   'Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions: Focus on developing excitatory synapses' , 49th Congress of the European-Societies-of-Toxicology (EUROTOX). Interlaken, SWITZERLAND. 1 - 4 September. ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, pp. S106 - S106. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.05.163 

Rahte, S. , Suter, A. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Tasdemir, D.   (2010)   'Selective serotonin re-uptake and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Salvia officinalis' , 7th Tannin Conference/58th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Medical-Plant-and-Natural-Product-Research. Berlin, GERMANY. 29 - 2 September. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, pp. 1213 - 1213. 

Modarai, M. , Silva, E. , Suter, A. , Heinrich, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2009)   'The effects of Echinacea and its alkylamides on CYP3A4 transcriptional activity' , 55th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Medicinal-Plant-Research-and-Natural-Product-Research. Geneva, SWITZERLAND. 16 - 20 August. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, pp. 998 - 998. 

Kortenkamp, A.   (2008)   'Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: an appraisal of the scientific evidence' , Breast Cancer Research Meeting. London, ENGLAND. 13 BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, pp. S24 - S24. doi: 10.1186/bcr1929 

Modarai, M. , Wilson, N. , Politi, M. , Suter, A. , et al.   (2007)   'Evaluating CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of Echinacea extracts using NMR and multivariate data analysis' , 55th Annual Congress of the Society-for-Medicinal-Plant-Research. Karl Franzens Univ, Graz, AUSTRIA. 2 - 6 September. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, pp. 990 - 991. 

Heinrich, M. , Modarai, M.  and Kortenkamp, A.   (2007)   'CYP inhibitory action of Echinacea preparations differs widely, but is it clinically relevant?' , 55th Annual Congress of the Society-for-Medicinal-Plant-Research. Karl Franzens Univ, Graz, AUSTRIA. 2 - 6 September. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, pp. 823 - 823. 

Modarai, M. , Gertsch, J. , Suter, A. , Kortenkamp, A.  and Heinrich, M.   (2006)   'Echinacea and its alkamides - An assessment of potential CYP-P450 enzyme inhibition?' , 54th Annual Congress on Medicinal Plant Research. Helsinki, FINLAND. 29 - 2 September. GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, pp. 1068 - 1068. 

Kortenkamp, A.   (1998)   'Chromium biomonitoring - Achievements, problems, and future challenges' , 2nd International Symposium on Metals and Genetics. TORONTO, CANADA. 26 - 29 May. KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM PUBL, pp. 87 - 100. 

Kortenkamp, A. , Casadevall, M. , DaCruzFresco, P.  and Shayer, ROJ.   (1996)   'Pathways in the chromium(VI)-mediated formation of DNA lesions: A review' , NATO Advanced Study Institute on Cytotoxic, Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Potential of Heavy Metals Related to Human Environment. PRZESIEKA, POLAND. 15 - 26 June. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL, pp. 15 - 34. 

Kortenkamp, A.   (1996)   'Approaches to the biological monitoring of chromium(VI) exposed individuals' , NATO Advanced Study Institute on Cytotoxic, Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Potential of Heavy Metals Related to Human Environment. PRZESIEKA, POLAND. 15 - 26 June. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL, pp. 35 - 53. 

Reports

Martin, O. , Kortenkamp, A. , Evans, R. , Faust, M.  and Backhaus, T.   (2014)  Risk of Combination Effects Between Decabromodiphenyl Ether and Other Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.  Place of publication: Miljødirektoratet 

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