Professor Susan Jobling

Director of the Institute for the Environment, Health and Societies / Professor in Ecotoxicology

Room: Halsbury Building 144
Brunel University
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1895 266284

About Susan

I am Head of the Institute for the Environment and a Professorial Research Fellow with a team comprising two postdoctoral researchers, and four PhD students. I am interested in how environmental contaminants affect the health of wildlife and humans as exposure to these is a part of our everyday lives, particularly in urban environments where 80% of UK citizens live and work. The diversity and quantity of chemicals released into the environment has risen dramatically in the last few decades and this is causing serious concern about the possible adverse effects of mixtures of these multiple chemicals on human health. The effects of contaminants on wildlife have been studied for more than 30 years, since the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.

My work over the last decade or so has focused on the ability of environmental contaminants to mimic chemical messengers (hormones) and alter functioning of the reproductive and endocrine systems. My current research areas include exploring new methods and models with which to determine the safety of mixtures of industrial chemicals and understanding the role of exposure to these chemicals in the manifestation of health problems, particularly reproductive health problems. From a regulatory perspective, my work has been influential in the development of widespread controls on some chemicals and I am always keen to make sure that my research informs policy. I also have a passion for communication of scientific results and their interpretation to the lay public.


  • 1991: BSc. (Hons) degree in Zoology with Marine Zoology, Upper Second Class (2i) degree. Bangor University College of North Wales.
  • 1994: PhD Environmental oestrogenic chemicals and their effects on sexual development in male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)


I completed my PhD at Brunel University (Department of Biological Sciences) in 1991 and remained at Brunel first as Postdoctoral Researcher (1995-1999) and then as a (tenured) Research Lecturer until 2002; after which I became a Senior Research Fellow (100% research tenured post). From 2004, I set up and directed a consultancy which advises governments and industries on the risks posed by environmental chemicals.


Research Interests

ecotoxicology; environmental contaminants

Research Activity

My research involves the development of collaborative inter- disciplinary approaches involving a wide range of specialisms to work towards an understanding of how contaminants influence wildlife and human health, from the individual to the population. Of great concern to me and an increasing number of other scientists is a group of contaminants known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endocrine disruptors or EDCs. EDCs are synthetic chemicals that interact with the human body's glands, hormones and hormone receptors, known collectively as the endocrine system. Health effects of EDC exposure can range from cancer to immune, endocrine, neurological and reproductive system impacts. I investigate effects right from the molecular level, through to the individual, right through to the population.

My research can be divided into two main areas:

1. Environmental Health Investigation.

 This is looking at the real world and the health problems and their possible connection with the contamination of the world by chemical contaminants. These are daunting scientific challenges and tracing down the causes of health problems can be very hard. My introduction to research started when I was asked to find the contraceptive pill hormone in water and its possible link with feminisation of fish populations in UK rivers. I have spent almost my entire career since that time trying to understand exactly which mixtures of chemicals cause feminisation in fish and how they do it. Lately this has involved both laboratory studies, field data collection on both exposure and effects and statistical modelling of these data. I now want to develop and apply methods to assist in identifying health risks from the low-level environmental exposures of today - methods which are sensitive enough to tease out the often subtle health effects of complex mixtures of micropollutants.

The new environment-health paradigm suggests that in utero neonatal exposures to mixtures of environmental toxicants at low doses alter susceptibility to disease later in life as a result of their ability to affect the programming of tissue function that occurs during development. My work here often involves a cross fertilization of ideas between toxicology and basic science as well as information science and mathematics.

2. The development of new models and test systems with which to test and predict the safety of chemicals and detect and monitor their presence in the environment.

 Society needs tools with which to protect us from any potential hazards posed by mixtures of contaminants; safety methods with which to test the chemicals we use, the air we breathe, the food we eat and the water we drink. Here, I have two interests:

  1. Exploration of new more ethically acceptable model test organisms with which to screen chemical safety: Current testing of chemicals (and medicines) is based largely on rodent models and public concern over vertebrate animal use in testing chemicals is increasing. The search for replacements to animals is a major long-term goal for medical research and now also for environmental safety testing. Two currently funded projects are exploring the use of snails as replacements for rodents in some reproductive toxicity screens. Our work here involves both fundamental research on the structure and function of the reproductive system in these new models and more applied reproductive toxicology research.
  2. Development of new intelligent biosensors with which detect and monitor the presence of contaminants and predict their effects on the health of humans and wildlife. This involves collaboration with materials scientists, biotechnologists and statistical modellers.

Grants Awarded

 Since 2002, I have been awarded several grants, totalling £1,605,294.00 in research funding, and an additional £434,803.52 in research consultancy.

  1. 2001-2004: Effects of treated sewage effluents on fish (Co-investigator with Professor Tyler, Exeter University). Value: 132,000. Source: UKWIR and The Environment Agency.
  2. 2001-2004: Genotoxic Effects of Putative Endocrine Disrupters in (co-investigato Co-investigator with Tamara Galloway, University of Plymouth and Mike Depledge of Environment Agency). Source Leverhulme Trust. Value: 98,460
  3. European Commission: £242,031 from 11/10/2002-31/03/2006 for a study entitled Comparative Responses of Vertebrates and Invertebrates to Androgenic and anti-androgenic chemicals (COMPRENDO). Co-investigator and work package leader.
  4. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC): £142,232 from 1/10/02-31/03/06 for a study entitled The Effects of Sewage Pollution on Freshwater Molluscs. (Principal and Sole Investigator)
  5. Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs: £162,941 from 01/05/04-30/04/07 for a study entitled "Investigations into Endocrine Disruption in UK Freshwater Molluscs". (Principal Investigator). An additional £30,000 was obtained from the Environment Agency and then a further £48,000 for an extension till 2009.
  6. Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BBSRC): £181,011 from 2004-2007 for a study entitled "Characterisation and Functional Role of Novel Oestrogen Receptors in the prosobranch Mollusc Marisa cornuarietis. (Principal Investigator). An additional £48,000 was obtained from the Environment Agency.
  7. Leverhulme Trust: £190,430 from 01/06/2009-30/05/2011 for a study entitled "Modelling and Mimicking the Effects of Pollution from Molluscs to Men". Principal Investigator (co-investigators Ed Routledge and Jo Bridger who are both at Brunel and Les Noble at Aberdeen University).
  8. NERC: £180,602 from 01/09/09 to 31/08/12 for a study entitled "Population Level Consequences of Exposure of Fish to Oestrogenic Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents". Collaborative study with Professor Charles Tyler at Exeter University (lead institute). I am the principal Investigator at Brunel and John Sumpter is the co-investigator.
  9. National Centre for the Refinement Reduction and Replacement of Animals in Research (NC3Rs): £380,047 from 1/11/2009 to 31/10/2012 for a study entitled "Molluscs Mice and Men". Principal Investigator. Co-investigators are Ed Routledge (Brunel), Tim Williams (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals in-kind contribution worth £80,000) and Les Noble and Catherine Jones (Aberdeen University). Brunel is the lead institution. Total value of the grant is £525,

Research Related Consultancy 

  1. 10. Environment Agency: Two contracts totalling £4869.53 from 17/07/2006-03/07 for reading and interpreting fish histopathology slides (Principle Investigator)
  2. 11. Melbourne Water: Three contracts (TO9724, TO9807 and TO9099 amounting to £56,610.65 from 01/2007-present for a consultancy and research project entitled "Survey of endocrine disruption in wild Black Bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) from Australia". (Principal Investigator)
  3. 12. Severn Trent Water: Two contracts (TO9820) amounting to £110,728.59 from March 2008-Present for a study entitled "Feminizing Effects of Exposure to Ilkeston Sewage Effluents (Do improvements make a difference?)". Principal Investigator
  4. 13. Thames Water: £79,572.82 from 09/08-12/09 (Contract TO9870). To carry out Pair-breeding Tests on Fathead Minnows on Improved sewage effluent from Swindon STW as part of the UK Endocrine Disrupters Demonstration Programme. Principal Investigator
  5. 14. Wessex Water: £17,991.50 from 02/08-05/08 (Contract TO9800).To carry out and interpret the results of fish tests on the Swanage sewage effluent. Principal Investigator
  6. 15. Environment Agency: £21,892.50 from 02/08-07/08 (Contract TO9775) for carrying out Fish Histological Analysis for project entitled "Modelling the potential impacts of endocrine disruption of fish populations"
  7. 16. Severn Trent Water: Three contracts totalling £143,137.93 from 1/10/08-Present (Contracts TO9872 and TO9940, TO9950) for a research project entitled "Investigation of the role of anti-androgenic constituents of treated sewage effluents in causing feminisation of fish in UK rivers" (Principal Investigator. Collaborating also with Severn Trent Laboratories).


 My research has led to regulatory action (through the EU and Member States) on some chemicals (e.g. nonylphenol and some phthalates) leading to those chemicals being severely restricted or banned. This has led to rapid improvements in water quality and hence aquatic life health. For example, my research on nonylphenols led to immediate reductions in its use (especially in industries such as textiles), and contributed significantly to the agreed phase out of this chemical throughout the European Union.

Research Supervision

Postdoctoral researchers

05/09-05/12. Dr Margaret Mary Town (The Leverhulme Trust)

11/09-11/11. Dr Alice Baynes (3NCRs)

Postgraduate Researchers and Research Assistants

01/10-01/11. Christopher Green (Severn Trent Water & CSIRO Australia)

01/10-01-12 Elizabeth Nicol (NERC)

12/09-12/12 Satwant Kaur (3NCRs)

PhD Students Supervised

1995-2000: Monique Nolan. The Environment Agency (Joint first supervisor with Charles Tyler) (MPhil). Complete.

1996-2000: Trevor Rodgers-Gray (Joint first supervisor with Charles Tyler) The Environment Agency (PhD). Complete

2000-2003: Tamsin Runnalls (2nd supervisor with John Sumpter) NERC (PhD). Complete.

2001-2004: Katherine Liney (Joint First supervisor) The UKWIR (PhD). Complete.

2002-2004: David Hala The European Union (PhD) Complete

2002-2005: Neil Clarke NERC (PhD) Complete

2004-2007: Rachel Benstead Effects of oestrogenic chemicals on reproduction in Uk freshwater molluscs: Comparison of field and laboratory studies. DEFRA (PhD) Current

2004-2007: Alice Baynes Effects of estrogenic chemicals on freshwater mollusc reproduction in outdoor mesocosms (life cycle studies). DEFRA (PhD) Completed

2009-2012: Satwant Kaur (NC3Rs). (PhD) Current

External Duties

External Duties

 I have served on several Government expert committees in Europe and the USA advising on test methods for chemicals present in food, consumer products and the environment. I was also one of two international steering committee members on the Swiss National Programme on Endocrine Disruptors from 2001-2008. I regularly sit on panels to review and evaluate proposals for funding at the European Commission in both 2007 and 2008 and currently serve as a risk assessment advisor (Public Health and Risk Assessment) also for the European Commission

I am often asked to chair conference sessions, give plenary research talks and lead research projects/parts of research projects. I am currently leading a programme to establish cooperative and collaborative links between the UK and Australasia in my research area. In this role, I have spent some time over the last 4 years travelling to Australia and New Zealand both to raise awareness (public, industrial and governmental) and to liaise with stakeholders and potential funders of the collaboration.
More at: Australasian Society for Ecotoxicology, History

I am external examiner of Ph.Ds for several Universities.


Journal articles

Baynes, A. , Green, C. , Nicol, E. , Beresford, N. , et al.   (2012)   'Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish-a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments'. Environmental Science and Technology, 46 (10).  pp. 5565 - 5573. doi: 10.1021/es204590d 

Beresford, N. , Brian, JV. , Runnalls, TJ. , Sumpter, JP.  and Jobling, S.   (2011)   'Estrogenic activity of tropical fish food can alter baseline vitellogenin concentrations in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30 (5).  pp. 1139 - 1145. doi: 10.1002/etc.479 Download publication 

Harris, CA. , Hamilton, PB. , Runnalls, TJ. , Vinciotti, V. , et al.   (2011)   'The consequences of feminization in breeding groups of wild fish'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (3).  pp. 306 - 311. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002555 Download publication 

Benstead, RS. , Baynes, A. , Casey, D. , Routledge, EJ.  and Jobling, S.   (2011)   '17β-Oestradiol may prolong reproduction in seasonally breeding freshwater gastropod molluscs'. Aquatic Toxicology, 101 (2).  pp. 326 - 334. 

Hala, D. , Bristeau, S. , Dagnac, T.  and Jobling, S.   (2010)   'The unexpected sources of organotin contamination in aquatic toxicological laboratory studies'. Aquatic Toxicology, 96 (4).  pp. 314 - 318. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.11.015 

Jobling, S. , Burn, RW. , Thorpe, K. , Williams, R.  and Tyler, C.   (2009)   'Statistical modeling suggests that antiandrogens in effluents from wastewater treatment works contribute to widespread sexual disruption in fish living in English rivers'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117 (5).  pp. 797 - 802. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800197 Download publication 

Clarke, N. , Routledge, EJ. , Garner, A. , Casey, D. , et al.   (2009)   'Exposure to treated sewage effluent disrupts reproduction and development in the seasonally breeding ramshorn snail (subclass: Pulmonata, Planorbarius corneus)'. Environmental Science and Technology, 43 (6).  pp. 2092 - 2098. doi: 10.1021/es8020167 Download publication 

Hala, DN. , Van Look, K. , Holt, WV.  and Jobling, S.   (2009)   'Validation of a method for measuring sperm quality and quantity in reproductive toxicity tests with pair-breeding male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)'. ILAR Journal, 50 (4).  pp. E1 - E10. 

Althaus, FR. , Hungerbühler, K. , Jobling, S. , Ruegg, U. , et al.   (2008)   'Endocrine disruptors: relevance to humans, animals and ecosystems research highlights from the National Research Programme NRP50'. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 62 (5).  pp. 316 - 317. doi: 10.2533/chimia.2008.316 

Tyler, CR.  and Jobling, S.   (2008)   'Roach, sex, and gender-bending chemicals: the feminization of wild fish in English rivers'. BioScience, 58 (11).  pp. 1051 - 1059. doi: 10.1641/B581108 

Crain, DA. , Eriksen, M. , Iguchi, T. , Jobling, S. , et al.   (2007)   'An ecological assessment of bisphenol-A: evidence from comparative biology'. Reproductive Toxicology, 24 (2).  pp. 225 - 239. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.05.008 

vom Saal, FS. , Akingbemi, BT. , Belcher, SM. , Birnbaum, LS. , et al.   (2007)   'Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure'. Reproductive Toxicology, 24 (2).  pp. 131 - 138. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.07.005 

Katsu, Y. , Lange, A. , Urushitani, H. , Ichikawa, R. , et al.   (2007)   'Functional associations between two estrogen receptors, environmental estrogens, and sexual disruption in the roach (Rutilus rutilus)'. Environmental Science & Technology, 41 (9).  pp. 3368 - 3374. doi: 10.1021/es062797I 

Rand-Weaver, M. , Bannister, R. , Beresford, N. , May, D.  and Routledge, EJ.   (2007)   'Novel estrogen receptor-related transcripts in Marisa cornuarietis: A freshwater snail with reported sensitivity to estrogenic chemicals'. Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (7).  pp. 2643 - 2650. doi: 10.1021/es062565m 

Jobling, S.  and Tyler, CR.   (2006)   'Introduction: The ecological relevance of chemically induced endocrine disruption in wildlife'. Environ Health Perspective, 114 (Supplement 1).  pp. 7 - 8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8046 Download publication 

Schulte-Oehlmann, U. , Albanis, T. , Allera, A. , Bachmann, J. , et al.   (2006)   'COMPRENDO: Focus and approach'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (Supplement 1).  pp. 98 - 100. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8060 Download publication 

Liney, KE. , Hagger, JA. , Tyler, CR. , Depledge, MH. , et al.   (2006)   'Health effects in fish of long-term exposure to effluents from wastewater treatment works'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (S-1).  pp. 81 - 89. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8058 Download publication 

Hagger, JA. , Depledge, MH. , Oehlmann, J. , Jobling, S.  and Galloway, TS.   (2006)   'Is there a causal association between genotoxicity and the imposex effect?'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (S-1).  pp. 20 - 26. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8048 Download publication 

Jobling, S. , Williams, R. , Johnson, A. , Taylor, A. , et al.   (2006)   'Predicted exposures to steroid estrogens in U.K. rivers correlate with widespread sexual disruption in wild fish populations'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (S-1).  pp. 32 - 39. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8050 Download publication 

Liney, KE. , Jobling, S. , Shears, JA. , Simpson, P.  and Tyler, CR.   (2005)   'Assessing the sensitivity of different life stages for sexual disruption in roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to effluents from wastewater treatment works'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (10).  pp. 1299 - 1307. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7921 Download publication 

Jobling, S. , Casey, D. , Rodgers-Gray, T. , Oehlmann, J. , et al.   (2004)   'Comparative responses of molluscs and fish to environmental estrogens and an estrogenic effluent (vol 65, pg 205, 2003)'. Aquatic Toxicology, 66 (2).  pp. 205. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.01.001 

Beresford, N. , Jobling, S. , Williams, R.  and Sumpter, JP.   (2004)   'Endocrine disruption in juvenile roach from English rivers: A preliminary study'. Journal of Fish Biology, 64 (2).  pp. 580 - 586. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00311.x Download publication 

Jobling, S. , Casey, D. , Rodgers-Gray, T. , Oehlmann, J. , et al.   (2003)   'Comparative responses of molluscs and fish to environmental estrogens and an estrogenic effluent'. Aquatic Toxicology, 65 (2).  pp. 205 - 220. doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(03)00134-6 

Jobling, S. , Beresford, N. , Nolan, M. , Rodgers-Gray, T. , et al.   (2002)   'Altered sexual maturation and gamete production in wild roach (rutilus rutilus) living in rivers that receive treated sewage effluents'. Biology of Reproduction, 66 (2).  pp. 272 - 281. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod66.2.272 

Sheahan, DA. , Brighty, GC. , Daniel, M. , Jobling, S. , et al.   (2002)   'Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21 (3).  pp. 515 - 519. doi: 10.1897/1551-5028(2002)021<0515:RITEAO>2.0.CO;2 

Jobling, S. , Coey, S. , Whitmore, JG. , Kime, DE. , et al.   (2002)   'Wild intersex roach (rutilus rutilus) have reduced fertility'. Biology of Reproduction, 67 (2).  pp. 515 - 524. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod67.2.515 

Nolan, M. , Jobling, S. , Brighty, G. , Sumpter, JP.  and Tyler, CR.   (2001)   'A histological description of intersexuality in the roach'. Journal of Fish Biology, 58 (1).  pp. 160 - 176. doi: 10.1006/jfbi.2000.1431 

Rodgers-Gray, TP. , Jobling, S. , Kelly, C. , Morris, S. , et al.   (2001)   'Exposure of juvenile roach (rutilus rutilus) to treated sewage effluent induces dose-dependent and persistent disruption in gonadal duct development'. Environmental Science and Technology, 35 (3).  pp. 462 - 470. doi: 10.1021/es001225c 

van Aerle, R. , Nolan, M. , Jobling, S. , Christiansen, LB. , et al.   (2001)   'Sexual disruption in a second species of wild cyprinid fish (the gudgeon, gobio gobio) in United Kingdom freshwaters'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20 (12).  pp. 2841 - 2847. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620201225 Download publication 

Rodgers-Gray, TP. , Jobling, S. , Morris, S. , Kelly, C. , et al.   (2000)   'Long-term temporal changes in the estrogenic composition of treated sewage effluent and its biological effects on fish'. Environmental Science and Technology, 34 (8).  pp. 1521 - 1528. doi: 10.1021/es991059c 

Harries, JE. , Janbakhsh, A. , Jobling, S. , Matthiessen, P. , et al.   (1999)   'Estrogenic potency of effluent from two sewage treatment works in the United Kingdom'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18 (5).  pp. 932 - 937. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620180517 Download publication 

Jobling, S.   (1998)   'Review of suggested testing methods for endocrine-disrupting chemicals'. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 70 (9).  pp. 1805 - 1827. 

Gimeno, S. , Komen, H. , Jobling, S. , Sumpter, J.  and Bowmer, T.   (1998)   'Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis'. Aquatic Toxicology, 43 (2-3).  pp. 93 - 109. doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(98)00060-5 

Tyler, CR. , Jobling, S.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1998)   'Endocrine disruption in wildlife: A critical review of the evidence'. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 28 (4).  pp. 319 - 361. 

Jobling, S. , Nolan, M. , Tyler, CR. , Brighty, G.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1998)   'Widespread sexual disruption in wild fish'. Environmental Science and Technology, 32 (17).  pp. 2498 - 2506. doi: 10.1021/es9710870 

Harries, JE. , Sheahan, DA. , Jobling, S. , Matthiessen, P. , et al.   (1997)   'Estrogenic activity in five United Kingdom rivers detected by measurement of vitellogenesis in caged male trout'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16 (3).  pp. 534 - 542. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620160320 Download publication 

Harries, JE. , Sheahan, DA. , Jobling, S. , Matthiessen, P. , et al.   (1996)   'A survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom inland waters'. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 15 (11).  pp. 1993 - 2002. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620151118 

Tyler, CR. , van der Eerden, B. , Jobling, S. , Panter, G.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1996)   'Measurement of vitellogenin, a biomarker for exposure to oestrogenic chemicals, in a wide variety of cyprinid fish'. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 166 (7).  pp. 418 - 426. doi: 10.1007/BF02337886 

Jobling, S. , Sheahan, D. , Osborne, JA. , Matthiessen, P.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1996)   'Inhibition of testicular growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to estrogenic alkylphenolic chemicals'. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15 (2).  pp. 194 - 202. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620150218 Download publication 

Sharpe, RM. , Fisher, JS. , Millar, MM. , Jobling, S.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1995)   'Gestational and lactational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (12).  pp. 1136 - 1143. Download publication 

Sharpe, RM. , Fisher, JS. , Millar, MM. , Jobling, S.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1995)   'Gestational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (12).  pp. 1136 - 1143. 

Sumpter, JP.  and Jobling, S.   (1995)   'Vitellogenesis as a biomarker for estrogenic contamination of the aquatic environment'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (Supplement 7).  pp. 173 - 178. Download publication 

Jobling, S. , Reynolds, T. , White, R. , Parker, MG.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1995)   'A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic'. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (6).  pp. 582 - 587. Download publication 

White, R. , Jobling, S. , Hoare, SA. , Sumpter, JP.  and Parker, MG.   (1994)   'Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic'. Endocrinology, 135 (1).  pp. 175 - 182. doi: 10.1210/en.135.1.175 

Jobling, S.  and Sumpter, JP.   (1993)   'Detergent components in sewage effluent are weakly oestrogenic to fish: An in vitro study using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes'. Aquatic Toxicology, 27 (3-4).  pp. 361 - 372. doi: 10.1016/0166-445X(93)90064-8 

Sumpter, JP.  and Jobling, S.   (1993)   'Male sexual development in a sea of estrogen'. Lancet, 342 (8863).  pp. 124 - 125. 

Conference papers

Harris, CA. , Runnalls, TJ. , Hamilton, PB. , Jobling, S. , et al.   (2008)   'Assessing the reproductive ability of intersex roach' , 18th Annual Meeting of SETAC Europe. Warsaw, Poland. [unpublished].  

Harris, CA. , Runnalls, TJ. , Hamilton, PB. , Jobling, S. , et al.   (2008)   'Assessing the reproductivity ability of intersex roach (Poster)' , 5th Annual Meeting of the SETAC World Congress. Sydney, Australia. [unpublished].  

Jobling, S.  and Tyler, CR.   (2003)   'Endocrine disruption, parasites and pollutants in wild freshwater fish' . England. Cambridge University Press, pp. S103 - S108. 

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