Copying for an direct or indirect commercial purpose
This includes copying for contract research, consultancy-based research, collaborative research, sponsored research or private study with a direct or indirect commercial benefit.
Such copying is never fair dealing, although some copying may be covered under any copyright licensing agreements held by the organisation where relevant. If no relevant licence is held, copyright clearance must be obtained for all commercial copying, and may incur fees. You should seek further advice from the Copyright Officer or your .
Copying for educational purposes (group study)
Much of the copying carried out for educational purposes cannot be considered to be fair dealing, where the same material is being copied by substantially the same group of users.
An instance where fair dealing could not be applied is where a number of students taking the same module, copy, or are likely to copy, a book chapter listed as core reading on a module reading list. However, copying for a thesis, dissertation or final year project may count as fair dealing, where the work is unique to the individual. The University holds licences which permit some multiple copying for educational purposes.
Explore the links on the right for further information.
Making multiple copies from printed works
The making of multiple copies printed or electronic works is not permitted under fair dealing. Making more than a single copy for one or more individuals is also not fair dealing.
This type of copying is called multiple or systematic copying, and is only legal where permission or a licence has been obtained.
The University holds various licences covering multiple copying for educational purposes, including one from the Copyright Licensing Agency covering multiple copying from printed books, journals and magazines. Visit useful links on copyright in teaching and learning below for further information.
Making multiple copies from electronic works
Making multiple copies from such as websites or e-journals must be explicitly permitted under a contractual licence agreement, web copyright notice or other statement of permission. The University's subscription agreements or Copyright Licensing Agency Higher Education Copyright Licence make some provisions for copying from some e-resources, including some websites.
Where a licence doesn't apply, you should check websites thoroughly for a copyright notice or usage terms. These are usually found on through links on a site's home page. For more information see the web pages on Copying from e-resources and Copying from websites.
Copying a commercial film, or copying images or sound recordings
Copyright clearance for the intended use of the material must be obtained from the copyright owner, or must be specifically covered by a licence agreement, e.g. subscription database. See the links on the right hand side for more information.